This is a resource book designed primarily for development workers working within the field of the rural poor. It describes a range of first-hand experiences with participatory approaches in the context of projects funded by The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and governments in Asia and the Pacific. The book is divided into a number of sections. Part One examines poverty and participation and explains why the poor should be targeted and in what ways this is possible. Part Two describes in detail the actual participatory approaches. Part three concentrates on participation in the project planning and implementation stage. Part Four assesses the monitoring impact and Part Five examines issues in participation with regards to institutions, partnerships and governance.
For the past three years the Centre for Cosmovision and Indigenous Knowledge (CECIK) has been working in Northern Ghana with an approach based on Empathic Learning and Action (ELA) framework. This framework has been developed and tested to support development projects that allow peoples' religious beliefs and practices to be an active part of the planning process. In this case study, the Boosi tribe from Bongo, Northern Ghana worked with a CECIK representative to design an experiment to keep the invasion of 'devil weed' at bay. This involved using an analogy between the farmers' experimental design and the footpath to the village, as well as consultation with ancestral spirits. This paper details the scenario, the process and experimentation, and the outcome.
The Participatory Approaches Learning Study (PALS) examined the potential for increasing stakeholder participation in DFID country programmes and at DFID's experience of delivering aid through participatory approaches. Its recommendations include proposals on staff development, on ways to make the Project Cycle Management System more flexible and accountable, and on making participation a stronger characteristic of DFID itself. The two-year research project involved separate studies of four of DFID's geographical departments - DFID-India, DFID-Bangladesh, South East Asia Division, and the Western and North Africa Department, which included India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana, Egypt and Nigeria. This report is a synthesis of the main findings and lessons from each of the geographical studies and includes Operational lessons from PALS, Participation and Project Cycle Management, Training Needs and Participation and Institutionalising Participation.
This article outlines how a participatory approach was used in five villages to investigate systems of access to fishing rights and their evolution as a basis for future fisheries development initiatives. Particular attention was paid to conflicts and disputes which had emerged over such rights and conflict resolution process charts were constructed by village elders to show how disputes had been resolved in the past.
Since 1989 the experience with PRA in Francophone West Africa has grown enormously. There is now a French language newsletter on PRA and networks have been established in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. These networks focus much of their efforts on PRA training with the aim of: strengthening the capacity of relevant institutions to use participatory approaches in their work; maintaining standards in the use of PRA methods; and identifying obstacles to PRA development in the region. The article analyses the problems encountered in trying to achieve these aims and suggests some possible ways forward.
This report reviews the impact of methodological contributions for assessment amongst NGO development initiatives in West Africa. The review is an effort to provide Oxfam UK/I and Novib staff with the advances made in this region. The report discusses the kinds of impact that Oxfam and Novib development projects are trying to achieve as well as relevance to impact assessment in the West African context. Through the use of participatory methods of impact assessment, it examines the evaluation methods of various organisations in West Africa.
Training In Participatory Planning And Research Methods In The Sahel: A Programme For The Strengthening Of Capacity In The Marp.
This is a project proposal developed by the Dry lands and Sustainable Agricultural Programmes of the IIED for a four programme, 1993-96 in Participatory Planning Methods in some Sahelian countries; Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Senegal. Although it focuses on MARP, it traces the history of PRA and RRA. It looks at the IIED's support of MARP in the Sahel. The strengths and weaknesses of MARP are discussed, with a reference on MARP and PRA.
Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme, Nigeria - Project Identification using Rapid Rural Appraisal, October 1991: Part I (interim report 21) selection of communities and collaborative workshop/ Part II (interim report 22) Marit villag
The Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme [JPERDP] (Nigeria) aims at developing a viable approach to rural development in the tin-mining region of the Jos plateau. The approach was by 1991 already moulding itself around two twin thrusts, namely, action research and capacity building. Part I of the report contains the selection process used to identify and contact cooperating communities for part of the phase two of the JPERDP, and also goes on to document the action-oriented collaborative training workshop. Two communities were selected, Marit and Wereng, according to a set of selection criteria offsetting common biases in rural development. Part II and III are village reports from the villages of Marit and Wereng.
A report on a 9 day RRA training exercise, which discusses the rationale behind the use of RRA, details four days of field experiences and detailed reflections on both the content of the course and the field training. Both positive aspects and concerns were expressed. The participants on the training course were split into three groups for field work, and the second section of the report illustrates their experiences in the form of case studies. A brief description and history of each village is followed up with detailed information about seasonality, cropping patterns, food processing, nutritional and livestock issues. There are numerous illustrations. As well as an analysis of farmers constraints there is a detailed discussion on the methods and approach used.
The paper discusses a project which aimed to acheive agricultural diversification by encouraging the production of cotton in the Gambia. An evaluation was carried out by the ODA's food strategy group in association with the Ministry of Agriculture. The object of the rapid appraisal was to identity constraints in its expansion, to examine the distribution of its benefits between and within households and to assess its potential as a cash crop alternative to groundnuts. The methodology of the appraisal is decribed, which involved investigating the organization of farm labour and technical aspects of cultivation.