The paper discusses a project which aimed to acheive agricultural diversification by encouraging the production of cotton in the Gambia. An evaluation was carried out by the ODA's food strategy group in association with the Ministry of Agriculture. The object of the rapid appraisal was to identity constraints in its expansion, to examine the distribution of its benefits between and within households and to assess its potential as a cash crop alternative to groundnuts. The methodology of the appraisal is decribed, which involved investigating the organization of farm labour and technical aspects of cultivation.
Since 1989 the experience with PRA in Francophone West Africa has grown enormously. There is now a French language newsletter on PRA and networks have been established in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. These networks focus much of their efforts on PRA training with the aim of: strengthening the capacity of relevant institutions to use participatory approaches in their work; maintaining standards in the use of PRA methods; and identifying obstacles to PRA development in the region. The article analyses the problems encountered in trying to achieve these aims and suggests some possible ways forward.
A report on a 9 day RRA training exercise, which discusses the rationale behind the use of RRA, details four days of field experiences and detailed reflections on both the content of the course and the field training. Both positive aspects and concerns were expressed. The participants on the training course were split into three groups for field work, and the second section of the report illustrates their experiences in the form of case studies. A brief description and history of each village is followed up with detailed information about seasonality, cropping patterns, food processing, nutritional and livestock issues. There are numerous illustrations. As well as an analysis of farmers constraints there is a detailed discussion on the methods and approach used.
Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme, Nigeria - Project Identification using Rapid Rural Appraisal, October 1991: Part I (interim report 21) selection of communities and collaborative workshop/ Part II (interim report 22) Marit villag
The Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme [JPERDP] (Nigeria) aims at developing a viable approach to rural development in the tin-mining region of the Jos plateau. The approach was by 1991 already moulding itself around two twin thrusts, namely, action research and capacity building. Part I of the report contains the selection process used to identify and contact cooperating communities for part of the phase two of the JPERDP, and also goes on to document the action-oriented collaborative training workshop. Two communities were selected, Marit and Wereng, according to a set of selection criteria offsetting common biases in rural development. Part II and III are village reports from the villages of Marit and Wereng.
Can Participatory Evaluation Meet the Needs of all Stakeholders? A Case Study: evaluating the World Neighbors West Africa Program
Participatory techniques are being used to a greater or lesser degree and in a variety of ways by more and more evaluators. This case study is a description of the methodology used during the participatory evaluation the author facilitated of the World Neighbors programmes in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Togo and Mali). During the one-week evaluation process in each of three programme sites a variety of participatory techniques were used, including PRA with villagers, focus group discussions, interviews with community leaders, roundtable discussions with representatives of other agencies working in the local area etc. But, did this process meet the needs of all stakeholders? At the village level participants gained new perspectives on the effect of the programme on their lives. The programme staff learned how to improve monitoring, routine evaluation, analysis and reporting. At the Area-wide Strategic Planning Conference, ideas and recommendations from the evaluation process shaped new action plans. Hence, the author argues the effectiveness of a community development programme should be measured in terms of how it influences decision-making by all stake-holders with responsibility for future plans.
This is a selection of letters and memos from FAO offices sent in reply to an IDS request for information on the use of PRA in policy research. Most replies indicate little such application of PRA. the last letter, however, concerns the use of PRA in a fisheries programme in Guinea. 45 fisheries department staff were trained in PRA. This resulted in a series of reports, prepared by national staff without requiring any further outside assistance, being one of the reasons why the reports seem to have had an impact on policy decisions at the ministry level.
Training In Participatory Planning And Research Methods In The Sahel: A Programme For The Strengthening Of Capacity In The Marp.
This is a project proposal developed by the Dry lands and Sustainable Agricultural Programmes of the IIED for a four programme, 1993-96 in Participatory Planning Methods in some Sahelian countries; Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Senegal. Although it focuses on MARP, it traces the history of PRA and RRA. It looks at the IIED's support of MARP in the Sahel. The strengths and weaknesses of MARP are discussed, with a reference on MARP and PRA.
This paper reports on research carried out on the use and effectiveness of participatory materials on child health, which were developed at community workshops, by the Kumasi Health Education Project in Ghana.
A high degree of satisfaction with the new materials was reported by teachers and health workers who had been trained in the new materials, when asked to carry out self-reporting questionnaire. This was found to contrast with the results of focus-group discussions of mothers attending well baby clinics, at home, in market places and with pupils at school who reported a low level of exposure to the new materials, although those who had been exposed to them were satisfied with them and recalled the messages well.
Impact socio-economiqe des banqes des produits agricoles de Woldou, Bayilian, Kondian et de Gbangadou
Description of research into agricultural credit bank in a number of villages in Guinea using semi-structured interview with groups and individuals and informal discussions.
This case study provides an example of a participatory multi-institutional, extension approach to seed development and dissemination.
This is a resource book designed primarily for development workers working within the field of the rural poor. It describes a range of first-hand experiences with participatory approaches in the context of projects funded by The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and governments in Asia and the Pacific. The book is divided into a number of sections. Part One examines poverty and participation and explains why the poor should be targeted and in what ways this is possible. Part Two describes in detail the actual participatory approaches. Part three concentrates on participation in the project planning and implementation stage. Part Four assesses the monitoring impact and Part Five examines issues in participation with regards to institutions, partnerships and governance.
The Participatory Approaches Learning Study (PALS) examined the potential for increasing stakeholder participation in DFID country programmes and at DFID's experience of delivering aid through participatory approaches. Its recommendations include proposals on staff development, on ways to make the Project Cycle Management System more flexible and accountable, and on making participation a stronger characteristic of DFID itself. The two-year research project involved separate studies of four of DFID's geographical departments - DFID-India, DFID-Bangladesh, South East Asia Division, and the Western and North Africa Department, which included India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana, Egypt and Nigeria. This report is a synthesis of the main findings and lessons from each of the geographical studies and includes Operational lessons from PALS, Participation and Project Cycle Management, Training Needs and Participation and Institutionalising Participation.