With this pioneering book introducing participatory approaches in rural development, the author challenges preconceptions dominating rural development at the time. The central theme of the book is that rural poverty is often unseen or misperceived by outsiders, those who are not themselves rural and poor. The author contends that researchers, scientists, administrators and fieldworkers rarely appreciate the richness and validity of rural peopleÆs knowledge, or the hidden nature of rural poverty. He argues for a new professionalism, with fundamental reversals in outsidersÆ learning, values and behavior, and proposes more realistic action for tackling rural poverty. The book is divided into eight chapters focusing on rural poverty unperceived (i.e. as perceived by outsiders); two cultures of outsiders, negative academics vs. positive practitioners; how outsiders learn; power structures and knowledge; integrated rural poverty including deprivation, vulnerability and powerlessness; making priorities for action; reversals in professional values and bridging gaps between disciplines, professions and departments; and recommendations and discussion of practical actions.
This 20 minute video focuses on rural communities in the UK. It demonstrates the use of Village Appraisals and Parish Maps, two creative methods which enable village groups to study and express the needs and feelings of local people and then go on to influence the future of their community. Village appraisals are a systematic 'stock-take' of the resources and services in a community using a local questionnaire survey. Two examples are shown, from the Dene Valley near Bishop Auckland, County Durham and from Motcombe, Dorset. Parish Maps use maps, pictures or any form of art and craftwork to illustrate the natural or human-made features of a parish that people really care about. Two examples are given from Buckland Newton in Dorset and Lockwood in Cleveland.
This paper presents a methodology for participatory evaluation of small group capacities and performance that has been developed for water-user associations in Sri Lanka. The system devised was one of self evaluation and was presented to the farmer groups as a system of self strengthening. The process of self evaluation is described in some detail in the first section of the article which consists of five activity areas in which farmers assess their own performance. The activity areas range from the economic/material activities of the project groups to the organisation and development of the groups. The approach was designed to be an iterative and consultative one i.e. the criteria for evaluation, although initiated by the programme were to be agreed and selected by the program participants themselves. The paper lists the different stages of the process and describes six reasons or rationales for the use of such an approach. Briefly, the paper concludes by identifying some of the more prominent problems associated by this approach.
A Field Methodology for Participatory Self- Evaluation of P.P.P. Group and Inter-Group Association Performance.
The introductory section of this brief paper discusses the importance of developing an evaluation methodology that is practical and flexible enough to be carried out by the community in the Peoples Participation Programme of the FAO. Uphoff reiterates that in fact the answers arrived at by the evaluation are in themselves not as important as what is learnt from the process of reaching consensus on such answers. An illustration of what the methodology utilised actually constituted is described in the first section of the paper. In the second section, however, the potential benefits of the methodology are discussed and these are categorised as being; i) that the process is self educative ii) the process is self improving iii) the process allows members of the programme to monitor progress and iv) it has the potential to improve training. Each of these potential benefits are discussed in some detail. The third section of the paper outlines a process for introducing the system in a rural setting in a number of steps. The last section, however, concludes by discussing a variety of issues related to the process of participatory self evaluation including problems of objectivity, comparability of numbers and use of appropriate language. Attached to the end of the document is an extensive section that includes an inventory of questions for group self evaluation and a list of questions for self evaluation. (Shorter version published in Community Development Journal Vol 26 No 4 )
This report presents the results of a village appraisal questionnaire conducted in three parishes in northern England. The questionnaire addressed education, transport, housing, recreation, services and general issues in the communities. The tabulated responses to the questions on local peopleÆs opinions on these issues are presented. There are also short discussions of particular issues such as road safety, litter etc., and of what should be done.
In this book, the author seeks to portray the process of community organising as a collective endeavour where the people are the principal actors and the community organisers serve only as facilitators. He proposes that community organising is only meaningful if it promotes the continuing capability building, self reliance and empowerment of the people. The book uses down-to-earth language and begins by presenting the context and significance of planning and management from the people, for the people. The basic concepts and processes of this view are discussed and specific guidelines for implementation are given. Case studies from the Philippines on participatory planning and management are presented and analysed, and finally synthesised in a comic strip.
In this book, the author seeks to portray the process of community organising as a collective endeavour where the people are the principal actors and the community organisers serve only as facilitators. He proposes that community organising is only meaningful if it promotes the continuing capability building, self reliance and empowerment of the people. The book starts out by giving a historical perspective of community organising in the Philippines, describing the state of the art of community organising and highlighting the ongoing debate on the meaning of development. He goes on to portray the poverty situation in most Philippine communities and provides an over-view of the community organising process that revolves around the lives, experiences and aspirations of the people. Case studies from rural Philippines are used to illustrate processes of community organisation, indigenous technology development, Christian community organising, and community-based education and training. Finally, a synthesis of lessons culled from the experiences gives practical guidance for promotion of community organising.
Public advocacy is the bandwagon that everyone's clambering onto: but not people know what public advocacy really is
This paper discusses the concept and practice of public advocacy. It describes the various practices of public advocacy, what advocacy involves, its challenges, and offers a brief look at public advocacy in India. It argues that public advocacy, rather than being a mere fashionable term, should signify a set of planned, proactive and organised actions to address issues of injustice, marginalisation and rights abuse in a more effective and efficient manner. To do so effectively, existing power relations have to be shifted in favour of the marginalised.
This report discusses appropriate mechanisms for community involvement in different social, economic, and political contexts and identifies the corresponding requirements for training health personnel and strengthening communities. Participatory methods are suggested for training health workers. It is suggested that monitoring and evaluation involves a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques.
The metaphor of the "mirror", constitutes the central theme for this guide to self evaluation [SE] prepared by the evaluation service of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation [SDC]. The "mirror of SE" refers to "a multitude of tools and methods which provide a critical and constructive analysis of our own activities and their consequences". Unlike external evaluation, a SE is always designed to "illuminate" one's own area of responsibility to help find possible improvements. 18 practical examples of SE are introduced in chapter 2, which are divided into three main groups; Externally initiated SE; SE involving partners; and Autonomous SE - which occurs entirely independently of outside influence (the key case study given in the latter group is the SE deployed in the Federation of Senegalese NGOs in Senegal, 1989). In chapters 3 and 4 respectively, an "analysis" and "valuation" of these case studies is carried out, with 8 "fundamental questions" providing the framework for discussion [questions include; "what is being evaluated?", "How is success being measured?", "who are the participants?", "how can SE be implemented?"] In chapter 5 the analytical concept of the "wheel with 8 spokes" is introduced as a specific approach through which SE can be conceptualised and put into practice. Although no mention of PRA is made, this guide does provide some relevant and stimulating discussion which is based around the large number of case studies. Certainly, the 56 arguments - or "excuses" - listed on p.32, which "are used to evade an SE" are equally likely to be employed with reference to the use of PRA methods for M&E. (61 pp)
Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme, Nigeria - Project Identification using Rapid Rural Appraisal, October 1991: Part I (interim report 21) selection of communities and collaborative workshop/ Part II (interim report 22) Marit villag
The Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme [JPERDP] (Nigeria) aims at developing a viable approach to rural development in the tin-mining region of the Jos plateau. The approach was by 1991 already moulding itself around two twin thrusts, namely, action research and capacity building. Part I of the report contains the selection process used to identify and contact cooperating communities for part of the phase two of the JPERDP, and also goes on to document the action-oriented collaborative training workshop. Two communities were selected, Marit and Wereng, according to a set of selection criteria offsetting common biases in rural development. Part II and III are village reports from the villages of Marit and Wereng.
This report presents the results of a village appraisal questionnaire conducted in a community in northern England. The questionnaire addressed health, education, elderly, transport, housing, services, employment and village life issues in the community. The tabulated responses to the questions on local people's opinions on these issues are presented. There are also short discussions of particular issues such as road safety, litter etc., and of what should be done.