This article explores constraints encountered when using PRA on an ODA-funded natural resources project in a tribal area of Western India. It was particularly evident that women's participation in the PRAs was minimal. The reasons for this were practical (women were not available collectively for long periods of time & there were few women fieldworkers as the project had just begun), social (PRA activities tended to take place in public places where women felt awkward) and methodological (women respond to PRA activities in different ways, sometimes feeling bored and "communicating by singing instead"). The author argues that an organised PRA "gives privilege to certain kinds of knowledge and representation and suppresses others" : the emphasis given to formal knowledge and activities tends to "reinforce the invisibility of women's roles". However, once the formal and public nature of PRA is perceived as a problem, it can become a means by which "women's knowledge and activities.. can be transferred from the informal to the formal arena of project planning", thereby increasing women's profile. Suggestions for encouraging women's participation in PRA include: making non-public contexts (since women are more used to the "private sphere"), using women's knowledge and ways of communicating (songs, sayings, proverbs). There are constraints: the "production of observable outputs (maps, diagrams of PRA) have more status for fieldworkers" than scribbled songs or informal interview notes and women's expressed needs (eg a flour mill) "don't fit easily into established categories of natural resource development".
Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme, Nigeria - Project Identification using Rapid Rural Appraisal, October 1991: Part I (interim report 21) selection of communities and collaborative workshop/ Part II (interim report 22) Marit villag
The Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme [JPERDP] (Nigeria) aims at developing a viable approach to rural development in the tin-mining region of the Jos plateau. The approach was by 1991 already moulding itself around two twin thrusts, namely, action research and capacity building. Part I of the report contains the selection process used to identify and contact cooperating communities for part of the phase two of the JPERDP, and also goes on to document the action-oriented collaborative training workshop. Two communities were selected, Marit and Wereng, according to a set of selection criteria offsetting common biases in rural development. Part II and III are village reports from the villages of Marit and Wereng.
This report is based on a research study conducted in five communities in the Northern Province using PRA. Both the formal and informal interview methods were used for collecting additional information. A detailed account of the communities under study is provided. It contains an assessment of the needs and problems encountered in the villages as defined and perceived by the community themselves. A large section of the report is devoted to analysing the causes of poverty and identifying and prioritising community needs using PRA methods. Guidelines for drawing up a project proposal are also presented. An appendix (3) contains tables and diagrams prepared by the communities using PRA methods for each village.
This case book was prepared by an independent task force on 'community action for social development' as a prelude to the Copenhagen Social Summit. The 12 case studies on successful community-based social development are from a wide range of countries, such as Zimbabwe, Colombia, Tanzania, Sweden, India, Kenya, Poland, Pakistan, Tibet, Thailand and China. This casebook presents diversity of the worldwide movement towards community- based social development and defines a common process used by the successful programs. A common theme that runs through these case studies is that sustainable social development is difficult but possible; outside agencies involved in sustainable human development should respect people, their values and cultures, build trust and share power and responsibility with the people. The book also stresses the need to provide space for community action and maintain close co-operation between the state, community and NGO.
This document contains three sections. The first is a paper on the evolution of the forest protection committee programme in Gujarat, India. It documents the history of state forest management, traditional resource use patterns, and forestry/community conflict issues. It details the author's experiences since 1978 of joint forestry management and community organising, leading to the formation of forest protection committees in each village. The forest protection and production activities of foresters and village committees are described. The second paper presents three case studies of joint forest management in three villages. A concluding section discusses the rationale of joint forest management committees and issues requiring further efforts.
This reports the findings of a village appraisal carried out in North England by the parish council. The purpose was to gain a better idea of local opinions to inform council decisions on a range of topics. The booklet gives overviews of the locality's main characteristics, population, housing, transport, local needs and concerns and suggested options for the future.
This document is a guide to conducting village appraisals, aimed at communities in the UK. It introduces what village appraisals are about, what they can be used for and what the expected benefits may be. How to decide what to do and how to go about it are discussed, with a sample timetable of activities, and sample documents for informing the community about the appraisal, sample questionnaires, lists of funding options and documentary sources.
This report presents the results of a village appraisal questionnaire conducted in three parishes in northern England. The questionnaire addressed education, transport, housing, recreation, services and general issues in the communities. The tabulated responses to the questions on local peopleÆs opinions on these issues are presented. There are also short discussions of particular issues such as road safety, litter etc., and of what should be done.
This report presents the results of a village appraisal questionnaire conducted in a community in northern England. The questionnaire addressed health, education, elderly, transport, housing, services, employment and village life issues in the community. The tabulated responses to the questions on local people's opinions on these issues are presented. There are also short discussions of particular issues such as road safety, litter etc., and of what should be done.
''NKASIRI'': Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning Techniques: Workshop proceedings, Maralal, Kenya, 1996
This paper documents a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on PRA and participatory planning. The introduction to the workshop raised issues like what participatory development actually entails in practice, and introduced the '' ladder of participation'' i.e. different degrees of participation. The trainees were divided into four teams and introduced to a range of PRA tools, with a list of do's and dontÆs. Community action plans were introduced. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and their implications for workshop participants and communities. The annexes include a discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and workshop participantsÆ evaluation comments.
This paper presents a methodology for participatory evaluation of small group capacities and performance that has been developed for water-user associations in Sri Lanka. The system devised was one of self evaluation and was presented to the farmer groups as a system of self strengthening. The process of self evaluation is described in some detail in the first section of the article which consists of five activity areas in which farmers assess their own performance. The activity areas range from the economic/material activities of the project groups to the organisation and development of the groups. The approach was designed to be an iterative and consultative one i.e. the criteria for evaluation, although initiated by the programme were to be agreed and selected by the program participants themselves. The paper lists the different stages of the process and describes six reasons or rationales for the use of such an approach. Briefly, the paper concludes by identifying some of the more prominent problems associated by this approach.
The short article starts by discussing the role of evaluation as an integral part of the project cycle and goes on to discuss the problems with the conventional approaches to evaluation. From a list of these problems a number of pre-requisites of good evaluation systems are identified. This then leads to a discussion of participatory evaluation with specific emphasis on how this can be carried out using the general philosophy of PRA techniques. Participatory evaluation as a concept within the watershed development project is then introduced and a list of both quantitative and qualitative indicators which are developed within the programme are identified as indicators. These indicators cover all the different sectors or aspects of the project. A list of potentially relevant PRA tools that could be utilised to evaluate these indicators is provided and a table illustrating the most appropriate tools or groups of tools used to measure a specific indicator is designed. The article concludes with a list of helpful points to keep in mind when carrying out participatory evaluation.
Reforming Agricultural Extension in Bangladesh: Blending Greater Participation and Sustainability with Institutional Strengthening
The limited effectiveness of the Training and Visit (T&V) system of extension in sustaining agricultural growth, combined with concerns about sustainability and pressures towards greater participation by farmers and the private sector, have stimulated major reconsideration of extension strategies in Bangladesh. This paper offers a conceptual framework for assessing the coherence, performance and sustainability of extension strategies. Subsequent sections review changes in agricultural production and productivity in the past two decades. Evidence of the contribution of extension is mainly circumstantial. The final section of the paper examines the major features of the new extension which include: decentralisation within the Department of Agricultural Extension; the use of groups in communications with farming communities; and greater efforts to assess farmers' needs and to tailor messages. The paper concludes that although these reforms are steps in the right direction, the strategy appears to be based upon unrealistic assumptions regarding the willingness and ability of different organisations to make changes and work together.