Combining different knowledges: community-based climate change adaptation in small island developing states
Since time immemorial humans have been increasingly competing for natural resources. Their occurrence and access have been used to exert power and authority, influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life, and economic and social development. From as early as 2200 BC, humans have tried to document and legalise rights to resources with the use of maps, a geographic representation of the earth that has since been considered as an authoritative reference, and accorded due (and sometimes undue) respect and credibility. In managing conflicts bound to the territory, the use of maps is widespread and helps locate and visualise the source of disagreements, which frequently involves boundaries defining the geographical scope of resource use and tenure. Processes leading to consensual conflict resolution are complex and articulated and need the concurrence of several factors to lead the contenders to consider the solution of the conflict from broader perspectives.
In remote, poorly served areas, community-based mapping methods can help in addressing boundary issues through the visualization of the landscape, associated land uses and settlement pattern. In the Philippines, the use of 3-D models began in 1993. Integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Participatory 3-D Modelling (P3DM) has been used among indigenous peoples under the auspices of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and lately, of the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP). This article discusses how the method has contributed to a successfully conflict resolution case in the Cordillera Region of the Philippines.
This paper introduces a systematic but simple approach to classifying and ordering sources of risk faced by subject populations. By distinguishing between the incidence and severity of subjective risk perceptions, this method enhances understanding of the nature and variation of risks faced within a population. It demonstrates the usefulness of the method as applied to pastoralist communities in the arid and semi-arid lands of southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. This method reveals the considerable heterogeneity of risk exposure and severity that exists within this seemingly homogenous sector, particularly across strata defined by gender, wealth, and primary economic activity.
This document includes, details of the process used to review ActionAids programme in Somaliland and provides both a summary and details of the findings. The review was carried out by a group of both men and women composed of community based organisation members, village elders, staff from government institutions and other professionals. Mapping, interviews and small group discussions were used to elicit data on availability, relevance, accessibility, utilisation, coverage, quality, effort, efficiency and impact indicators.
Comprehensive overview of participatory approaches to monitoring, focusing on community monitoring of environmental changes and natural resource management interventions. The Working Paper draws on an extensive review of published literature and interviews with practitioners with experience in participatory monitoring. Ten case studies are presented and comparatively analysed and discussed. The paper begins by providing a general overview of conventional monitoring and then discusses the basis of participatory monitoring approaches, especially their impacts and benefits, how participation is achieved, and how indicators are perceived and developed. Trade-offs in meeting diverse, often conflicting needs and objectives, particularly between the need for scientific rigour on the one hand, and enhanced participation in participatory monitoring process on the other. The last section of the paper presents and compares three different categories of approaches to participatory monitoring which have been successful at achieving community involvement. These approaches are methodologies that are developed from the use of PRA, those that use oral testimony, and those that adapt scientific approaches to ecological assessment. Finally, current gaps in our understanding of participatory environmental monitoring are identified. The review finds that further documentation is required of the negotiations that occur within and between stakeholder groups, particularly in terms of identifying and establishing different priorities and objectives. It further suggests that few approaches to monitoring involve all stakeholders in the complete monitoring process, which takes longer to establish and implement. The review highlights that the monitoring process must provide real and meaningful benefits for all stakeholders, especially for local people whose long term participation is central to the monitoring process.
As part of the UNICEF relief programme to Angola, a technical team carried out a ranking exercise upon which this paper reports. It took place between December 1991 and June 1992. Ranking is defined here as a process of priority ordering, in this case administrative areas in relation to the need for assistance. It used the knowledge that informants possessed from the country, at a national level, as well as from the provinces. No quantitative data were used. The ranking technique was expected to provide a rational framework to deal with time and resource constraints. The paper looks at the ranking process at a central and provincial level, as well as looking at the limitations and potential of the approach. It concludes that ranking was useful with regards to outlining the humanitarian issues in Angola; however, its efficiency depends very much on the choice of information source.
Nutritional surveillance, as part of, or complementary to, the famine early warning system in Ethiopia, has been used to collect reports on local food security from community leaders using structured interviews. It is important to assess the extent to which this information reflects the food-related behaviour of the community. Information on various socio-economic variables related to nutrition was collected at the household and community level through interviews in western Shewa Province. The data was compared and generally the correspondence between the two was good. Information topics which might be missed using only the local leader, and ways to improve collection are discussed.