CAMPFIRE is a Zimbabwe project which seeks to place the proprietorship of natural resources with the poepl living most closely with them. The game discussed in this article is based upon the board game "Monopoly" where the participants each have a sum of money and their objective is to develop the wildlife potential and manage visitors. The game allows participants to practice the mechanics of book-keeping, analyse their sources of income and practice developing budgets.
This report is the result of a RRA training exercise for staff of ActionAid- Ethiopia (AAE). Its aims were to encourage adoption of participatory approaches in AAE's work, to encourage cooperation among AAE staff, familiarise them with the local area and with RRA methods. The exercises were held in two peasant associations (PAs). As a result of the training exercises, these two PAs are described, through reports of historical time lines, land tenure distribution, mapping, seasonal calendars of rain, water resource use, cropping, grazing, fuel, labour use and marketing, wealth ranking, pie charts, and Venn diagrams. For each PA, strategies for AAE involvement in local development, including those relating to water resources, grain mills, land use, income generation, forestry, pest management, livestock, credit, and agricultural innovation. The report ends with comments and reflections on the RRA training and on the differences between RRA in agroecosystem analysis and conventional agroecosystem analysis.
This paper argues that transnational corporation ventures ought to factor in and mainstream accountability at the early stages of a project, implying that corporate accountability is a process to be nurtured over time. It also outlines a role for civil society actors as being instrumental in creating spaces for engagement with diverse stakeholders. It also draws emphasis to the role of advocacy in combating exploitation and human rights violations. The paper is based on a case study from the Titanium Mining Campaign in Kwale, Kenya. Some of the key lessons learnt from this paper include: ways in which the campaign brought together diverse players working against major obstacles in a bid to counter Tiomin and its allies; effective poverty eradication strategies will warrant a review and harmonisation of government policies to facilitate equitable access and control of productive resource by the immediate owners; the newly enacted Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act of 1999 needs to review observed inconsistencies and loopholes, particularly those requiring Environmental Impact Assessments be undertaken by project proponents to undertake EIAs for proposed developments; advocacy is most effective when backed up by a solid information base; as International NGOs continue to demand for accountability, they ought to focus on developing local capacities for engagement. This paper can be found at http://www.eldis.org/
Beyond the limits of PRA?: a comparison of participatory and conventional economic research methods in the analysis of ilala palm use in South-Eastern Zimbabwe
This paper gives account of a study that was made as part of Mabalauta Workshop, held in south-eastern Zimbabwe. The study makes a comparison of PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) methods and a household sample survey for eliciting economic data on the use of the Ilala palm (Hyphaene petersiana), an important resource for livelihoods in this area of Zimbabwe. The paper considers whether PRA and traditional economic tools produce similar results for a range of quantitative economic data; if there are differences then how big are they, and which technique is more reliable for which type of data; and whether PRA techniques really are more cost effective, especially in terms of the time requirements of the æbeneficiariesÆ. Field work was carried out in the Xini-Maoze Ward, in Sengwe Communal Land, Chiredzi district, Zimbabwe. The comparability of the two approaches was assessed by looking at the data sets for a range of variables, including the population proportions of different stakeholder groups, household cash income shares, and the production, marketing and economic returns of palm products. While quite similar results were obtained for some of the variables, the PRA findings appeared less reliable for most quantitative information. Production and economic data were also collected from informal discussions with key informants. It was concluded that this method produced the most reliable quantitative data, although this reliability is subject to representativeness. Single visit random household surveys were most useful for differentiating between households, and fro aggregating stakeholder group data in a project area. This type of survey was also more revealing in terms of gender differentiation. In conclusion, this study indicates how these three tools can be used in combination to develop a reasonable data set for project design purposes. Appendices include the household survey questionnaire used in the study and economic calculations made using the PRA and survey data.
Constraints and opportunities for community participation in the management of the Lake Victoria fisheries
The main objective of this paper is to discuss the concept of community participation in the context of Lake Victoria fisheries and to relate it to changes which have occurred here. The authors suggest that community participation should not only seek to involve local people in the management of the production sector of the fisheries, but also the processing and distribution sectors, and they emphasise how participation is closely linked to employment and income opportunities. The document suggests important areas for community participation and looks at the factors that influence opportunities for participation in these areas. It goes on to discuss the transformation of the Lake Victoria fisheries and how that has provided opportunities and set constraints for community participation.
This report from the Lessons From the Field series presents methods and findings of a participatory evaluation of integrated reproductive health programs in two villages in India, with comparisons to a third village that had no reproductive health programming. The evaluation of the reproductive health component of the Bayalu Seeme Rural Devlopment Society (BSRDS) integrated programme took place in 2001 in the villages of Nellur, Yelenavadgi and Khanapur of the Aland subdistrict of the Gulbarga district south of Karnataka, India. The objectives were to review the reproductive health component of the BSRDS integrated programme to examine impact, outcome and progress; to determine the lessons learned from the application; and to develop capacity of NGO staff for self-evaluation. The evaluation method was integrated and included aspects of womenÆs status, reproductive health, group capacity, organisational capacity, integration, and savings and credit. It involved a comparison village and incorporated quantitative and qualitative methods. The results suggest that there were significant changes in key reproductive health practices; changes in indicators of womenÆs status; loans given by the created womenÆs groups had an impact on the livelihood of ca. a third of the group members; and that the womenÆs groups have developed capacities to effectively implement, monitor and evaluate their activities. It was found that the linkages between the menÆ agriculture groups and the womenÆs groups have been important and that the integrative model appeared cost-effective.
Farmers' Needs for Management, Research and Extension, and Policy - Findings of a Farmers' Workshop and their Implications
This paper reports the findings of a workshop attended by farmers in New Zealand. Farmers' objectives, their circumstances and the constraints they face are central to any consideration of ways of improving farming systems. The management, research and extension, and policy needs of the farmers attending this workshop were diverse. This diversity was linked to the degree of diversity in business objectives and management structures on their farms. More research on these issues across a spectrum of farmers is required to ensure that research and technology transfer meet their needs. Most of the discussion relates to wool and meat products.
From invisible work to collective action : research and participation with women from the fishing communities of the Amazonian coast.
This paper reports on the activities of the Women in Fishing (WIF) programme which aims to The article reflects on the obstacles to womens participation in both an initial meeting on the theme of social security rights of fisher women and also in the women's associations formed as a result of the meeting.