There is a brief review of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Agroecosystem Analysis (AA). The concepts underpinning these methods, particularly the emphasis on locally attained data, are explained, and their application is expounded. The multidisciplinary aspect of these methods is focused upon. There is a detailed bibliography.
This is a midterm participatory evaluation report of a watershed programme in Tiruchirappalli, South India. The project used PRA techniques (integrated with other methods) in the planning and impact evaluation stages. The report includes a detailed background to the programme and quantitative findings. No detail is given on how the PRA activities were carried out as the emphasis is on the information collected, including case-studies on the impact on women's status.
Details the activities of a 60 field orientated PRA training programme. The purpose of the training was to enable village resource management planning to become participatory. The recommendations from the training excercise include follow up to the PRA and the development of VRMPs; sharing of knowledge about PRA; study trip to India for project staff to see PRA in practice; encouragement of village level animators. The remainder of the report consists of details of the itinery of the consultant, schedules of the PRA training workshops and methods of evaluations of the courses
Discusses the methods of collecting information during a field-study carried out in Brazil, in the health district of Pau da Lima. It was intended to provide a learning experience for students as well as to explore the local potential for Primary Environmental Care (PEC) and to produce a number of recommendations to local bodies. Possible actors, conditions, means and resources to promote PEC within the Pau da Lima district were investigated. PEC integrates three components: empowering communities, protecting the environment, and meeting needs. The first step was a preliminary identification of present and future potential actors in PEC in the Pau da Lima district. A Rapid Appraisal (RA) was conducted in three squatter communities within the district, focusing on felt problems; interests and priorities in PEC; forms and conditions of community organisation; and instances and conditions of community-based action. Methods used include: review of secondary data, informal disucssions with informants, direct observations, laboratory analysis of water samples collected during the observation walks, life history interviews, focus groups and ranking exercises, semi-structured interviews. While the study found the RA methods useful, it suggested that they may not be sufficient to identify community-based solutions to specific problems. The techniques in "Making Microplans" (Goethert and Hamdi 1988) provide an example of how this action-oriented phase could proceed.
Policy analysis for agricultural resource management in Nepal: a comparison of conventional and participatory approaches
Argues that, given the weaknesses of both published statistics and questionnaire-based socio-economic surveys, some fundamental changes must be made to the way information is collected and analyzed. It looks first at some of the problems of data collection using questionnaire surveys, then suggests how these problems can be overcome by using participatory techniques. A practical example is given from Nepal, where PRA was used to examine the seasonality of fodder supplies.
The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD) in Tanzania is currently reviewing land policy, with the aim of supporting equitable, environmentally sustainable agricultural growth. A Seminar and RRA's in four villages provided an opportunity for mid-level policy-makers from different government departments to think about land policy issues. The article describes how a RRA carried out in one of the villages revealed many problems with the process of land use planning (LUP). Many of these arose from attempting to use a top-down process in a situation that required bottom-up planning.
Proceedings of the first Nepal Participatory Action Network Workshop, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 21 January, 1995
The first Nepal Participatory Action Network (NEPAN) workshop was held in January 1995 with the aim of providing a setting in which NEPAN institutional issues could be discussed and experiences of using PRA techniques shared. These proceedings cover the short presentations and discussion from the second day of the workshop. Four sessions focused on the following topics: issues in participatory approaches; constraints and problems encountered in using PRA techniques; training for PRA; and institutionalisation of PRA.
This paper, prepared as part of a report to the ODA, examines the past, present and future role of community participation in the development of Isiolo District, Kenya. Past initiatives discussed include government policy and practice, the institutional framework provided by the District Focus, and the role of the Department of Social Services. Current initiatives include the role of NGOs and international agencies, and community participation in the Isiolo Livestock Development Project. regarding the latter, there are discussions of the ILDP approach and its weaknesses, the role of the deda, ethnic conflict, women's participation and links with formal institutions. The final section discusses options for the future, including potential for the use of existing institutions, and channels for institutionalising and methods for facilitating community participation
This report examines poverty in relation to community forestry and dairy development. The initial section discusses the background to the study and the methods used. The emphasis is on PRA, with checklists developed and lists of tools identified. The four different communities are described, and although the subsequent analysis is sectoral, the differences between the four communities are highlighted. There are numerous case studies interspersed in the text. Forestry and Dairy are two areas where there have been many active interventions in the past, and the aim of the study was to give people a voice in what they felt about these interventions. These subjects are therefore dealt with in great detail, including an analysis of recent changes related to the projects. Issues around education, democracy and gender are also explored in depth. The final section outlines proposed new indicators of poverty which the researchers feel to be more appropriate, and recommendations for the future measurement of poverty alleviating interventions.
This paper shares FARM AFRICA- Farmers Research Project 's (FRP) experience in bringing attitudinal and behavioural change among the professionals of the project. The paper asserts that although the focus of PRA training at FRP is on methods, substantial albeit varied changes have been noticed in the attitudes and behaviour of professionals involved with the project. This includes the officials of the Ministry of Agriculture whose attitudes have changed as a result of PRA training and other related activities such workshops, seminars, visits and dissemination. The paper outlines a series of strategies to spread the impact of PRA and to convince senior policy makers about the importance of PRA.
This report documents the experience of a local Sri Lankan NGO, National Development Foundation (NDF) in participatory rural development. The report shows how NDF's approaches changed after being introduced to PRA methods, although NDF had been supposedly practising a participatory approach since the inception of the programme with an emphasis on providing technical support to villages and strengthening organisational capacities of farmers' organisations. The report concludes that the introduction of PRA in the programme has helped maintain a good relationship between the staff and the farmers' organisations, has encouraged active participation of the farmers' organisations in planning, decision making and in taking greater responsibility as the main actors of the programme.
This paper presents a case study of Nepal's' user group forestry programme. The programme's objective is to bring abut 'phased handover of hill forests to the communities'. This paper argues that the power to manipulate forest resources does not lie with the state (but with local landlords or broader community groups), and that shifting power to the community involves reconciling the demands of different interest groups. It suggests that before attempting to shift power it is necessary to identify and assess existing and future institutional arrangements, and to identify the degree of autonomy or participation to which the community aspires. Of interest to PRA collection users is the section on the transformation of the forest department, and the relationships between forest user groups and field staff. Participatory workshops, field support and institutional change were strategies used to effect this transformation, with mixed results. This process of transformation is analysed in detail.
This document reports on an RRA conducted in the Upper Mille and Cheleka catchments development project in Wollo province, Ethiopia. Its goals were (i) to test the applicability of RRA to the work of the Ethiopian Red Cross Society, and (ii) to analyse two peasant associations and suggest possible innovations to benefit their members. This introduction outlines a form of RRA known as agroecosystem analysis (AEA). Its methods and procedure of implementation are described: sub-groups examined diversification in space through mapping, transects, and analysing home gardens, and diversification in time through seasonal calendars. A second section examines the importance of diversification for security, improvement of production and purchasing power, and to act as a catalyst for overall development. The results of the RRA's in two peasant associations comprise the bulk of the report. For each, key issues are identified (e.g. land use, water resources, livestock, crops, health, forest resources), and strategies for diversification are examined (e.g. irrigation, land use patterns, revegetation, experimenting with new crops, clean water supply, development of home gardens, reforestation, credit etc.). The report ends with comments on the use of RRA in development planning and the role of RRA in developing management concepts and process in peasant associations.
Mid-term Review of the Implementation of Policy Recommendations Regarding Key Agricultural Inputs During 1988-89 to 1990-91 Period
This is a report based on studies using RRA methods, the aim of which was to assess the implementation of agricultural policies in Bangladesh and to establish a benchmark for future impact analyses. It presents analysis of trends in the delivery and use of key agricultural inputs (fertiliser, seeds, irrigation, pesticides, credit and extension service). Major constraints are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are made. Six local studies are presented in an appendix.
This book presents a participative action model to assist groups in developing the organisational, analytical and management skills required for community action to achieve sustainable use of land and water resources at the local level. Groups using this book are expected to develop participatory mechanisms for planning and implementing land and water management projects. It is aimed at developing self-learning skills by community leaders, extension officers and students in Australia. The contents are divided into short learning units in which outlines of theories, concepts and principles are followed by personal and group activities. The organisation of chapters follows the pattern of group development. It explains the philosophy of participative action in land care (Ch. 2); and discusses learning to work together, development of leadership skills and defining of roles and responsibilities (Chs. 3-5). The next eight chapters are on 'how to' aspects of group functioning: running a meeting, organising activities, planning, motivating oneself and others, effective communication, finding human and financial resources for projects. The last two chapters discuss how to keep momentum going and how to manage conflicts that accompany change.