This paper discusses two related questions: Are research results usable? Are the data actually used in decision-making? Both are determined by the researcher's choice of research methodology. The links between choice of research methodology and the application of results is discussed through a simple conceptual model. A satisfactory link requires a decision to allocate part of research capacity to the evaluation of previous research. To demonstrate the difficulties involved in rigorous analysis, a case study of ten years of research for agricultural development in three East African countries (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania) is reviewed. Deficiencies in agricultural planning and in applied research for agricultural development are discussed in detail. The causes of ineffective applied research are viewed as lying in scientific culture. An example of applied research with implemented solutions is given, emphasising the benefits of participant research and management procedures for planning.
This paper describes an action-research approach that extends participation from the village level to national policy-making processes. Villagers were able to contribute to the Malawi Government policy on rural energy and natural resource management. Video was used as a tool with communities to research, reflect and analyse their own problems, and to represent themselves directly with policy-makers.
This special briefing records the findings of a which brought together thirty researchers, research users and representatives of funding agencies from Canada and the UK to examine how researchers, policy makers, funding and other agencies/groups could be involved in developing, executing and communicating research. The briefing elaborates on the notion of interactive research, identifies elements of good practice and notes that further debate and analysis is required to promote the development of interactive and meaningful research that is relevant to the needs of research users and the wider community.
El Proyecto Sierra de Santa Marta: experimentacion participativa para el uso adecuado de recursos geneticos maiceros
This book narrates participatory research and experimentation with improved seeds as well as with local germoplasm in the Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz, Mexico, within the scope of the practical and research works developed by Sierra de Santa Marta Project for a sustainable development strategy and community development in this region of Mexico.
This paper shares experiences of a participatory land management approach Gestion de Terroirs developed from 1986 by the Burkinabe government. The approach is based on rural community based management, and is multisectoral, multidisciplinary, village based, and flexible. Although the National Programme for Gestion Terroirs (PNGT) was implemented in 1992-1996, Burkina is only now developing a system for local government, which should come into place in 2005. Meanwhile it has a well developed system of legally recognised community structures called Village Committees for Area Management (CVGT). These can receive funds and manage development in their area. The article describes the approach of the PNGT including establishment of and support of the CVGTs, coordination of actors at different levels, promoting decentralisation, and participatory assessment of community issues using MARP (the Accelerated Method for Participatory Research). It presents the results of PNGT which covered 8 provinces and ca. 150000 people with the main investments including: social and economic infrastructure; land management strategies; agricultural support; and forest management. MARP was used to study the impact of the project, including wealth ranking, giving positive response with 73% of beneficiaries estimating improved production and 80% improved food security. There was also improved soil fertility, increased vegetation cover, increased biodiversity, increased yields, better and more community organisation, improved community capacity, and a strengthened community role in development.
This report presents the results of a one year study of poverty in Shinyanga based on eight sectoral studies and also participatory poverty assessments which were carried out in eight villages.
Este documento muestra el camino recorrido por el equipo tÚcnico del CIAT (Centro de Investigaci¾n AgrÝcola Tropical) en Bolivia, al incorporar en el rol de investigaciones y transferencias de tecnologÝas, los principios de la investigaci¾n participativa para el desarrollo sostenible en las comunidades de Pozuelo y Cerro Verde en el municipio de Marrana, y Villa Florida en el municipio de el Torno en Santa Cruz. Se desarrollo una experiencia institucional a nivel de las tres comunidades rurales con productores de escasos recursos, con diferentes niveles organizativos, pero con caracterÝsticas similares de manejo productivo, origen, costumbres, acceso a informaci¾n y servicios, para contribuir metodol¾gicamente a los procesos de generaci¾n y difusi¾n de innovaciones tecnol¾gicas con potencial de impacto en la adopci¾n de sus recomendaciones. Se promovi¾ en las comunidades la formaci¾n de tres comitÚs de investigaci¾n acci¾n participativa; se realizaron convenios locales, municipales e interinstitucionales que permitieron de desarrollar diagn¾sticos rurales participativos, planes de acci¾n, ensayos de investigaci¾n participativa y una serie de eventos que generaron ideas, motivaciones y resultados de impacto en diferentes aspectos de las comunidades a nivel organizativo y al manejo tecnol¾gico. El documento describe en 70 paginas los antecedentes del proyecto; como se entiende la investigaci¾n acci¾n participativa bajo el enfoque de medios de vida sostenible; la importancia en el establecimiento de ensayos participativos; la organizaci¾n del comitÚ de investigaci¾n agropecuario comunal; la visi¾n comunal; el diagnostico participativo proactivo; los fases del proyecto investigaci¾n acci¾n participativa; los logros alcanzados; lecciones aprendidas; y conclusiones y recomendaciones.
This document describes how the technical team from CIAT (Tropical Agricultural Research Centre) in Bolivia, incorporated the principles of participatory research in promoting research and technologies for sustainable development, in the communities of Pozuelo and Cerro Verde in the municipality of Marrana, and Villa Florida in the municipality of Torno, in Santa Cruz. An institutional experience was developed in the three rural communities with producers of limited resources, at different organizational levels, but with similar characteristics of production management, origin, customs, and access to information and services, in order to make a methodological to contribution to the processes of generation and diffusion of technological innovations. The formation of three participative action research committees was promoted in the communities; local, municipal and inter-institutional agreements were established that enabled the development of Participative Rural Appraisal, plans of action, piloting of participatory research, and a series of events were undertaken that generated ideas, motivations and impact results on different aspects of the communities on an organizational level and on a technological management level. In 70 pages the document describes the background of the project; the meaning of participatory action research with focus on sustainable livelihoods; the importance of the establishment of participatory pilots/tests; the organisation of the committee for community farming research; the community vision; the participatory rural appraisal; the phases of the participatory action research project; the reached objectives; learned lessons; and conclusions and recommendations.
This report by the National Centre for Advocacy Studies, India, presents the finings of a participatory analysis of land distribution in Madhya Pradesh, India. The study was undertaken by trained villagers with 1078 families in the regions of Chambal, Bundelkhand, Banghelkhand, Mahakoushal and Malwa. The introduction of the report gives an overview of issues within land distribution, livelihoods and land reform with focus on social hierarchy and Dalits and Adivasis in India; struggles for land; promises of land reforms; broken promises; escalation in land alienation; campaign for land rights, renewing the agenda; and the methodology of the study. The findings of the study are presented in two sections. The first section focuses on land reform in Madhya Pradesh examining land profile and reform, agricultural land ceiling acts, entitlement without possession, laws and alienation of Adivasi land, and land alienation because of conservation acts. Section two looks at landlessness, land alienation, entitlement without possession, possession without entitlement, and encroachment on forestland. The final chapter presents a summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations. Some of the main findings are that the land reform process in Madhya Pradesh is very tardy; Dalits and Adivasis continue to be alienated from control of natural resources; there are innumerable cases of land entitlements without possession; in conjunction with the land reform big land holders make efforts to snatch away land from the poor and marginalised; with the enactment of the Wildlife Sanctuaries Act and the Forest Conservation Act, original inhabitants of forests have been declared intruders and their customary rights violated. The proposed policy implications and action plan gives recommendation on how to deal with these shortcomings.