A study of six indigenous peoples' communities involving field research on the main concerns and needs at the local level as well as organisational capacities. This was undertaken by the Institute of Philippine Culture (IPC) so as to facilitate the involvement of indigenous people in the country's democratisation processes. Communites were selected on the grounds of geographical spread and development issues affecting the indigenous groups. The research was carried out during a period of six months, involving secondary data review in the preparation phase and PRA investigation in the fieldwork phase. The latter mainly focused on diagramming visual sharing, and mapping activities. The research aimed to obtain a preliminary assessment of rural indigneous people's livelihoods, especially issues concerning resource tenure and day-to-day existence. In particular, farming and fishing systems were analysed, relationships with outsiders explored and the issue of ancestral domains discussed. The indigenous group profiles are the following: 1) Ifugaos in Malabing Valley, Nueva Vizcaya 2)Manobos in Magpet, North Cotabato 3)B'laans in Polomolok, South Cotabato 4)Tagbanwas in Coron, Palawan 5)Dumagats in Casiguran, Aurora 6)Sulodnons in Lambunao, Iloilo.
Field observations have led many people to believe that beneficiary participation in decision making can contribute greatly to the success of development projects. When people influence or control the decisions that affect them, they have a greater stake in the outcome and will work harder to ensure success. But the evidence supporting this reasoning is qualitative so that many practictioners remain skeptical. Three questions need to be addressed: to what degree does participation contribute to project effectiveness? which beneficiary and agency characteristics foster the process? and, if participation does benefit project outcomes, how can it be encouraged through policy and project design? To answer these questions, researchers studied evaluations of 121 completed rural water supply projects in forty-nine developing countries around the world. The results show that beneficiary participation contributes significantly to project effectiveness, even after statistically controlling for the effects of 17 other factors. The basic conclusion of this study is that rural water projects must be fundamentally redesigned in order to reach the one billion rural poor who lack a sustainable water supply. Redesign must encompass a shift from supply-driven planning to demand-responsive, participatory approaches to ensure beneficiary participation, control, and ownership.
Based on findings from participatory studies, beneficiary assessments and on quantitative survey data, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of the constraints being faced by them in agricultural production, including the quality of agricultural services. Coping strategies adopted by farmers as a consequence of the agricultural policy changes in Zambia in the 1990's are also outlined.
National and International research institutes and NGOs have a growing interest in structured and more transparent methods of priority setting. Aside from selecting and applying appropriate methods, they have to ensure that various stakeholders are well represented. This is crucial for the results and implementation of identified priorities. (Biotechnology and Development Monitor)
Communities meet policy-makers : from institutional research agendas to community research and representation.
This document reports and reflects on research undertaken in three regions of Malawi. The reserch was initially based on a very narrow narrow research question and moved to an action-oriented approach focussing on participatory research carried out by communities using videos. The villagers involved presented the findings of their research on video to national policy makers
This chapter has an introduction and three papers. In the first the authors examine "organizational structure, performance and participation" in Nepal. They describe a study of forest user groups. The second paper raises questions concerning the meaning of "community", "local" and "indigenous" by reviewing the history of local forest management in a region of the Himalayas. It is the presence of a local guard to monitor harvest behaviour that is the most important institutional variable affecting performance. The thrid paper, "Diversity in Forms of Participation" makes a similar point based on irrigation system experience from India, the Philippines and Indonesia. The author urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the norms and customs of farmers.
Reaching the parts ...: community mapping: working together to tackle social exclusion and food poverty
This report documents a Community Mapping project that was carried out in estates in Brighton, Coventry and Leicester in the UK. The project was co-ordinated by Sustain: The Alliance for Better Food and Farming, in partnership with Oxfam's UK Poverty Programme, and Development Focus. This report summarises the process, findings and outcomes of the Community Management project. Participatory appraisal methods were used in the process, to generate a clearer understanding of how food poverty affects people in different ways, and for different reasons; these methods and findings are elaborated on in the document. The methods also shed light on what could be done, and by whom, to solve problems with food in the community. Accordingly, recommendations for particular policy areas are made.
Pedagogia de la negociacion: claves para entender la gestion local de los recursos naturales y la democratizacion comunitaria
Rooted in his experience with a project in Costa Rica, Carlos Brenes Castillo attempts to introduce a pedagogic development process which serves to reconcile the existing tension between 'top down'and 'bottom-up' perspectives and approaches to rural development. Where the first is held and practiced by external agents and the latter by internal, or local, actors, his starting point is an exploration of the respective and interactive dynamics between rural communities and foreign development institutions. An emphasis is placed on a pedagogy which perceives the project as a process, and the importance of creating space for collective learning is highlighted. This, with the objective of realising a development process that reconciles and respects both humans and their natural environment. Chapters include: A point of departure: between them and us; The stage: a conditioning social context; Process' design and negotiation; Participatory Rural Rapid Appraisal with a gender focus; FODA: Studying a community's strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats, an analytical tool for community development; About the participatory planning process; Community consultation: a means of exercising local democracy; Proposal (?) development: a foundation for local agendas; Development plan: building partnerships (?); From external financing to economic self-sufficiency.
This report published by the Barrow Community Regeneration Company is an example of the growing trend for Participatory Appraisal being used in the UK. It has been produced in conjunction with "Sustain" the alliance for better food and farming to work with local authorities and agencies looking at food poverty in the UK. The report is the result of community mapping projects using PA in Hindpool and Barrow in Furness between November 2000 And August 2001. A group called the Community Consultation Monitoring and Evaluation Partnership was created to address the need for new methods of consultation. The aims of the group were to share information between agencies, avoid duplication and ensure that community actions were followed up.
The project took place over a sixth month period during which participatory community mapping activities were followed by a verification process which identified who was responsible for making actions happen and what people could do for themselves. Solutions were identified such as the need for community cooking classes, food education in schools and local access to fresh fruit and vegetables. Over 10% of residents in Hindpool have taken part and an Action Plan has been drawn up and presented to policy makers.
The report details the process, looking at local and national contexts, the participatory tools and approaches used and the resulting Action Plan as well as looking at future developments. It is written in an accessible and colourful format.
The use of participatory three-dimensional modelling in community-based planning in Quang Nam province, Vietnam
Vietnam has set a course for political and economic change. Decentralisation has allowed individual provinces in Vietnam significant autonomy to interpret national laws and policy. These changes are opportunities to harness the legal framework for change into community-based planning and participation in natural resource management. The MOSAIC programme in Quang Nam province, central Vietnam, has adopted innovative planning tools at the local community level, such as participatory three-dimensional modelling (P3DM). In the P3DM method accurate 3-D models of a chosen area are manufactured and used as a source for discussion. MOSAIC is building experiences, lessons and partnerships to frame provincial policy for sustainable land-use planning. The programme is navigating the complex State administrative structure to magnify site-based results into wider-scale policy and planning at provincial, regional, and up to national levels. This article gives account of experiences from and the participatory methods used in the MOSAIC activities in Tabhing commune and Song Thanh nature reserve. It starts by giving a brief introduction to the situation in Quang Nam province, which is one of the poorest in Vietnam and dominated by ethnic minorities, and where open-access resource regimes are rapidly depleting local forests. It describes the processes of participatory planning and P3DM used in working with the Ka Tu people in the region, and evaluates lessons learned from the use of P3DM in community-based planning. It concluded that efforts to link landscape-level planning into micro-level conservation action has benefited from P3DM as a cost-effective learning, planning, and mediating tool.
Joint mangrove management in Tamil Nadu: process, experiences and prospects. Part 2. Participatory rural appraisal in mangrove-user villages
This report documents experiences of the Joint Mangrove Management (JMM) project that was introduced 1997 in mangrove wetlands of Pichavaram and Muthupet (Tamil Nadu). The main aim of this programme is to enhance the capacity of the local community, Forest Department and other interested parties to restore, conserve and sustain mangrove wetlands through participatory analysis and action. The program was implemented in eight hamlets until May 2003, covering traditional and non-traditional fishers and farming communities. The experiences are covered in a series of seven parts. Part 2 (the present document) provides details of the PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) exercises conducted in three project hamlets: MGR Nagar in Pichavaram where a non-traditional fishing community are dominant; Vadakku Pichavaram where the farming community dominates; and Veerankoil village in the Muthupet region, a traditional fishing community. In each case study, the aims processes and methods followed in each PRA exercise, and results thereof, are explained in detail. Major concerns of the people in the villages, revealed by the PRA, are also described. These concerns form the basis of recommendations for future micro-planning. Some of the research methods used are resource mapping, matrix ranking, wealth ranking and daily activity schedules. The other parts of the series focus on Situation Analysis of Pichavaram and Muthupet Mangrove Wetlands (1); Village Mangrove Councils (3); Mangrove Management Units (4); Micro-planning and Implementation (5); Gender and Mangrove Conservation and Management (6); Results, Achievements and Prospects (7).