The SMAP Development Process is a series of community learning opportunities based on micro-projects undertaken in a participative, community-based manner which facilitates improvement of community skills in harnessing, managing and sustaining development resources. SMAP focuses on small scale, quick acting projects at the community level. By assisting communities to identify, plan, implement and evaluate these "micro-projects", SMAP aims to increase the communities' capability to direct and undertake their own future development.
This report examines poverty in relation to community forestry and dairy development. The initial section discusses the background to the study and the methods used. The emphasis is on PRA, with checklists developed and lists of tools identified. The four different communities are described, and although the subsequent analysis is sectoral, the differences between the four communities are highlighted. There are numerous case studies interspersed in the text. Forestry and Dairy are two areas where there have been many active interventions in the past, and the aim of the study was to give people a voice in what they felt about these interventions. These subjects are therefore dealt with in great detail, including an analysis of recent changes related to the projects. Issues around education, democracy and gender are also explored in depth. The final section outlines proposed new indicators of poverty which the researchers feel to be more appropriate, and recommendations for the future measurement of poverty alleviating interventions.
The author narrates a personal journey to participation, through her work with local fisher communities in Tanzania, who were trying to stop dynamite and other illegal fishing methods. The use of video as a medium of communication empowered local villagers, giving them a means to forward their claims directly to those in authority. She describes the experience of lobbying the government at the national level, and how she stepped outside her role of NGO worker to accompany the villagers she had been working with to confront the Prime Minister. This act drew on an awareness that a facilitator is not neutral, and that commitment must be personal and political, not just that of professional duty. However, along the way, her journey has been fraught with personal risks as they confronted powerful local elites and opposed vested interests. She reflects on the need to change attitude and behaviour in institutions, and to put our own interests last, for participation and peoples' empowerment to go beyond rhetoric.
The Gamba Protected Areas Complex (GPAC) in Gabon is an Integrated Conservation and Development Project designed to conserve ecosystems in the Guinea-Congo Basin and promote sustainable natural resource development. This article presents a socioeconomic survey undertaken by members of the local community using PRA techniques. The objectives of this survey were to determine the boundaries of terroirs villageois (buffer zones within which sustainable use of natural resources would be permitted), gather qualitative and quantitative information on the life of rural communities living in this area and develop the rapport needed for participatory management. The article outlines some of the PRA tools used aswell as emphasising the need to allow time to build rapport and trust within communities. It highlights the importance of using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in the Gamaba Complex through two examples, firstly, geographic positioning and delimiting of terroirs villageois and secondly, measuring damage caused by elephants to food crops.
This paper surveys public participation policies across a range of international institutions and environmental agreements to better understand whether opportunities exist for meaningful participation in international decisions that affect the environment. It examines the implementation of Principle 10 in the Rio Declaration, supported by the Aarhus convention which details measures countries must take to ensure that citizens have access to information, participation, and justice in decisions that affect the environment. It looks specifically on how Multilateral Development Banks, Multilateral Environmental Agreements, and trade regimes and regional economic bodies have lived up to these goals. Co-produced by WRIÆs (World Resources Institute) International Financial Flows and the Environment Program (IFFE) and The Access Initiative (TAI), the survey concludes that: Policies on public participation are quickly becoming the norm; Public participation at the national level is uniformly weak; domestic stakeholders have limited ability to influence international decisions that affect their environment; Institutions and agreements subject to the greatest public scrutiny have the most advanced public participation policy frameworks; A common methodology is needed to assess the implementation and practice of public participation. This analysis provides the reader with an overview of where multilateral institutions are contributing to the development of effective public participation, and the extent to which opportunities exist in domestic and international political spheres for affected parties and the interested public to incorporate sustainability concerns in multilateral decision-making processes.
This book reviews the key successes and challenges in achieving a truly participatory process of policy making. It is a handbook of participatory tools used to prepare IndiaÆs National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan under the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Bringing in multiple perspectives, especially those that usually remain invisible, is a universal challenge to policy processes today. Based on diverse opinions and perspectives, this book moves beyond the general principles of participation to identify precise approaches that work (as well as risks and pitfalls) in including diverse local opinions. A range of successful tools are explained step-by-step to help practitioners adapt and design appropriate approaches for their own contexts. The handbook is structured geographically, looking at Karnataka, Maharashtra, Sikkim and Andhra Pradesh, concluding with a more general look at the national media campaign.
An introduction to Prajateerpu; a citizens' jury/scenario workshop on food and farming futures in Andhra Pradesh, India
This chapter presents an introduction to Prajateerpu - a citizens' jury/scenario workshop on food and farming in Andhra Pradesh, India. It was a six-day exercise in deliberative democracy involving marginal-livelihood citizens from three regions of the state, which took place in 2001. Prajateerpu was devised as a means of allowing those people most affected by the government's Vision 2020 for food and farming to shape a vision of their own. It aimed to link local voices and visions of food and farming futures with national and international policy making, and introduce innovative elements such as an oversight panel, video scenario presentations, and witnesses, with the aim of ensuring a balanced deliberative process.
Analysing the deforestation narrative in the Businda Participatory Poverty Assessment Report : how was it constructed?
This paper analyses the environmental assessment of the Businda Sub-village, as part of the Shinyanga Region, Tanzania Participatory Poverty Assessment. The author argues that the perceptions of the researchers involved in the research came to prevail over those of the community and examines the reasons for this.