There is a brief review of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Agroecosystem Analysis (AA). The concepts underpinning these methods, particularly the emphasis on locally attained data, are explained, and their application is expounded. The multidisciplinary aspect of these methods is focused upon. There is a detailed bibliography.
This is a midterm participatory evaluation report of a watershed programme in Tiruchirappalli, South India. The project used PRA techniques (integrated with other methods) in the planning and impact evaluation stages. The report includes a detailed background to the programme and quantitative findings. No detail is given on how the PRA activities were carried out as the emphasis is on the information collected, including case-studies on the impact on women's status.
Rural development forestry in Scotland : the struggle to bring international principles and best practices to the last bastion of British colonial forestry.
Examines the failure of the state forestry agency (the Forestry Commission) to involve local rural communities in the management of its substantial forest land holdings in Scotland. This disregard for local people is in spite of the governments declared support for the UNCED Forest Principles and the article suggests that the FC would do well to learn from the governments overseas technical assistance programmes.
The experience of three Scottish NGO's to ensure the participation of local people at all stages of forestry planning and implementation through the use of PRA is outlined. This programme is revealed to have met with some opposition from the Foestry Commission but at the same time to have acted as a catalyst for recent changes in forest policy.
Using PRA techniques to collect information for the purposes of policy analysis, raises different issues from using PRA in an NGO project context. Training exercises for policy-oriented PRA need to be "custom-designed" for government staff who tend to have a more "top-down" approach, work in discrete departments and have restricted time for learning PRA. The article suggests how to plan a training programme in view of these points.
Details the activities of a 60 field orientated PRA training programme. The purpose of the training was to enable village resource management planning to become participatory. The recommendations from the training excercise include follow up to the PRA and the development of VRMPs; sharing of knowledge about PRA; study trip to India for project staff to see PRA in practice; encouragement of village level animators. The remainder of the report consists of details of the itinery of the consultant, schedules of the PRA training workshops and methods of evaluations of the courses
Discusses the methods of collecting information during a field-study carried out in Brazil, in the health district of Pau da Lima. It was intended to provide a learning experience for students as well as to explore the local potential for Primary Environmental Care (PEC) and to produce a number of recommendations to local bodies. Possible actors, conditions, means and resources to promote PEC within the Pau da Lima district were investigated. PEC integrates three components: empowering communities, protecting the environment, and meeting needs. The first step was a preliminary identification of present and future potential actors in PEC in the Pau da Lima district. A Rapid Appraisal (RA) was conducted in three squatter communities within the district, focusing on felt problems; interests and priorities in PEC; forms and conditions of community organisation; and instances and conditions of community-based action. Methods used include: review of secondary data, informal disucssions with informants, direct observations, laboratory analysis of water samples collected during the observation walks, life history interviews, focus groups and ranking exercises, semi-structured interviews. While the study found the RA methods useful, it suggested that they may not be sufficient to identify community-based solutions to specific problems. The techniques in "Making Microplans" (Goethert and Hamdi 1988) provide an example of how this action-oriented phase could proceed.
Policy analysis for agricultural resource management in Nepal: a comparison of conventional and participatory approaches
Argues that, given the weaknesses of both published statistics and questionnaire-based socio-economic surveys, some fundamental changes must be made to the way information is collected and analyzed. It looks first at some of the problems of data collection using questionnaire surveys, then suggests how these problems can be overcome by using participatory techniques. A practical example is given from Nepal, where PRA was used to examine the seasonality of fodder supplies.
The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD) in Tanzania is currently reviewing land policy, with the aim of supporting equitable, environmentally sustainable agricultural growth. A Seminar and RRA's in four villages provided an opportunity for mid-level policy-makers from different government departments to think about land policy issues. The article describes how a RRA carried out in one of the villages revealed many problems with the process of land use planning (LUP). Many of these arose from attempting to use a top-down process in a situation that required bottom-up planning.
The understanding of children's roles in the household, how work loads are shared and how they alter over time and with different socio-economic and environmental conditions is crucial for development. Gender issues are important, and an understanding of both gender and children should be built into projects and policy. Children's work has not often been considered in planning development initiatives. The first section provides a background to this before moving onto the background to the fieldwork conducted in Nepal and a description of the area. Environmental issues and their effects on children are illustrated using flow diagrams, maps and historical analysis. The role of children is highlighted in a framework of caste/ ethnicity, poverty and gender which affects control over resources and decisions. Different perceptions are examined using seasonal calenders, activity matrices and mobility diagrams. Throughout the study participatory methods were used, in addition to a basic questionnaire, and the methodology is highlighted in the appendix. The report concludes with six "steps forward", providing practical leads for policy and action. It is stressed that this report is not an end in itself but rather a first step towards development in which children are given a voice.
Proceedings of the first Nepal Participatory Action Network Workshop, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 21 January, 1995
The first Nepal Participatory Action Network (NEPAN) workshop was held in January 1995 with the aim of providing a setting in which NEPAN institutional issues could be discussed and experiences of using PRA techniques shared. These proceedings cover the short presentations and discussion from the second day of the workshop. Four sessions focused on the following topics: issues in participatory approaches; constraints and problems encountered in using PRA techniques; training for PRA; and institutionalisation of PRA.
This paper, prepared as part of a report to the ODA, examines the past, present and future role of community participation in the development of Isiolo District, Kenya. Past initiatives discussed include government policy and practice, the institutional framework provided by the District Focus, and the role of the Department of Social Services. Current initiatives include the role of NGOs and international agencies, and community participation in the Isiolo Livestock Development Project. regarding the latter, there are discussions of the ILDP approach and its weaknesses, the role of the deda, ethnic conflict, women's participation and links with formal institutions. The final section discusses options for the future, including potential for the use of existing institutions, and channels for institutionalising and methods for facilitating community participation
A study of six indigenous peoples' communities involving field research on the main concerns and needs at the local level as well as organisational capacities. This was undertaken by the Institute of Philippine Culture (IPC) so as to facilitate the involvement of indigenous people in the country's democratisation processes. Communites were selected on the grounds of geographical spread and development issues affecting the indigenous groups. The research was carried out during a period of six months, involving secondary data review in the preparation phase and PRA investigation in the fieldwork phase. The latter mainly focused on diagramming visual sharing, and mapping activities. The research aimed to obtain a preliminary assessment of rural indigneous people's livelihoods, especially issues concerning resource tenure and day-to-day existence. In particular, farming and fishing systems were analysed, relationships with outsiders explored and the issue of ancestral domains discussed. The indigenous group profiles are the following: 1) Ifugaos in Malabing Valley, Nueva Vizcaya 2)Manobos in Magpet, North Cotabato 3)B'laans in Polomolok, South Cotabato 4)Tagbanwas in Coron, Palawan 5)Dumagats in Casiguran, Aurora 6)Sulodnons in Lambunao, Iloilo.
This report examines poverty in relation to community forestry and dairy development. The initial section discusses the background to the study and the methods used. The emphasis is on PRA, with checklists developed and lists of tools identified. The four different communities are described, and although the subsequent analysis is sectoral, the differences between the four communities are highlighted. There are numerous case studies interspersed in the text. Forestry and Dairy are two areas where there have been many active interventions in the past, and the aim of the study was to give people a voice in what they felt about these interventions. These subjects are therefore dealt with in great detail, including an analysis of recent changes related to the projects. Issues around education, democracy and gender are also explored in depth. The final section outlines proposed new indicators of poverty which the researchers feel to be more appropriate, and recommendations for the future measurement of poverty alleviating interventions.
The first of the two main sections to this report is a resume of the training programme and schedule. The main second section consists of a series of eight papers and annexes which are aimed at providing background theory to the subject of community development. The themes they cover are: peoples participation in rural development; community organisation - concepts and principles; women and rural development; community, change agents and their organisational strategies; formation, constitution and functioning of Mathar Sangams; initiating community action for development; panchayati Rai System; and participatory watershed management. This last focuses on a specific programme which used PRA to discuss issues relating to canals and identify a management committee who could take the process further.
The Restoration of a Lake Basin in Mexico and the Regional Social Participatory Process: the Case of ORCA
This booklet systematises 12 years of the work of ORCA (the Riparian Organisation Against Contamination of Lake Patzcuaro), a regional organisation of 23 mainly Indian peasant communities living in Patzcuaro Basin, Mexico, since 1982. It reveals how a well organised and highly motivated regional popular organisation, in collaboration with committed social and natural science researchers, can mobilise local populations to influence local government environmental policies and acquire greater control over the sustainable management of fragile ecosystems such as Lake Patzcuaro.