This book is the outcome of a two week field-based workshop. The focus is on two villages in the proximity of Khartoum. Several PRA/RRA techniques were used: secondary data analysis; mapping; transects; seasonal calendars; preference ranking; matrix ranking; wealth ranking; venn diagrams and key informant interviews. RRA techniques offer an approach to understanding the complexity of tree management at regional, village, group and individual levels. At regional level the influences on tree management relate to changing patterns of wood product supply and demand and the interaction of urban and rural markets. At village level uncertainty over economic, tenurial and environmental control are key influences governing the management of trees. Preferences for trees by different village groups influence assessments of the costs and benefits of alternative tree management options. Different socio-economic groups have varying and competing interests in the wood economy. The use of RRA enables the development of integrated insights for a more effective understanding of incentives for tree management in Sudan.
Article focuses on the lowest-income groups of Khartoum and their struggle to find shelter in the city. After giving an overview of housing conditions and the ways in which poorer groups find accommodation, the author describes the legal and illegal housing submarkets. He argues that understanding these is essential in order to change housing and living conditions. Discussion then turns to government attitudes toward housing problems, and the description of the development of two low-income housing areas in Khartoum. Very little emphasis is placed on participation and nowhere is PRA or RRA methodology mentioned. In the conclusions, the author states that community participation is a realistic alternative to current policies, and that low-income groups have used it successfully for a long time. The author argues that limited public resources could be best put toward supporting community-based organisations who work to improve infrastructure and basic services.
A three day training workshop and three weeks of fieldwork were conducted by a team of nine women in two parts (one typically urban and the other typically rural) of the Gaza Strip. The purpose was to understand the social and economic roles of women better, to obtain more information on women's projects and teach PRA methods to other women. A wide range of PRA tools were used. The PRA covered all aspects of women's socio-economic wellbeing including health. In the urban areas, health problems include the psychological and physical stress consistent with exposure to military activities. Possible development alternatives are discussed and ranked: a health clinic is the first of four alternatives in the rural area and the third of seven in the urban area
This paper describes how The Mazingira Institute in Nairobi created and used a series of illustrated learning packages on environmental issues to stimulate responses from school children. Annual competitions invited children to answer questions and submit essays and drawings on a variety of topics. The children's responses proved a valuable source of information on their perceptions of environmental issues, and traditional knowledge and action in their communities. The "information exchange with children" project helped children to link what they learned in school with what they heard from the elders in their community, and with what they could see and do themselves. The authors conclude that the distributed learning packages and responses gathered from children combine mass media with the education system, allowing the youth to address environment and development problems, and potentially linking with policy making.
Street children, hotel boys and children of pavement dwellers and construction workers in Bombay, how they meet their daily needs
This paper presents the results of research on how street children, hotel boys and the children of pavement dwellers and construction workers in Bombay meet their daily needs. Section two describes the factors which lead to children being in such circumstances and the inadequacies of public provision in meeting their needs. Section three describes the organisations responsible for undertaking the survey and the unconventional means by which contacts were made with the children. It also describes how involving the children in the survey became a means of establishing better contact between the children and the government agencies and voluntary organizations seeking more effective public responses to their needs and problems. Section four presents the findings of the research. (Author's summary)
This report is a review of the different participatory methodologies used in development throughout Africa. It includes overviews of the literature on participatory development, and participation in agriculture and natural resource management, forestry, health, credit, literacy, water, and urban programming. Numerous methodologies are outlined (e.g. animation rurale, auto-evaluation, GRAAP, Theatre for Development, RRA etc.). ACORD's experience with participatory methodologies in Burkina Faso, Mali, Uganda and Sudan are discussed in detail. There are annotated bibliographies on ACORD and key general publications relating to participatory methodologies, and lists of key institutions.
Discusses the methods of collecting information during a field-study carried out in Brazil, in the health district of Pau da Lima. It was intended to provide a learning experience for students as well as to explore the local potential for Primary Environmental Care (PEC) and to produce a number of recommendations to local bodies. Possible actors, conditions, means and resources to promote PEC within the Pau da Lima district were investigated. PEC integrates three components: empowering communities, protecting the environment, and meeting needs. The first step was a preliminary identification of present and future potential actors in PEC in the Pau da Lima district. A Rapid Appraisal (RA) was conducted in three squatter communities within the district, focusing on felt problems; interests and priorities in PEC; forms and conditions of community organisation; and instances and conditions of community-based action. Methods used include: review of secondary data, informal disucssions with informants, direct observations, laboratory analysis of water samples collected during the observation walks, life history interviews, focus groups and ranking exercises, semi-structured interviews. While the study found the RA methods useful, it suggested that they may not be sufficient to identify community-based solutions to specific problems. The techniques in "Making Microplans" (Goethert and Hamdi 1988) provide an example of how this action-oriented phase could proceed.
This paper considers the suitability of a housing project in Cordoba, Argentina for poor women-headed households. The project was designed to rehouse squatters who occupied land needed for public works. The paper considers the planning and the implementation of this project and examines the extent to which women-headed households participated in the project, documenting a considerable number of "hidden" women headed households. The objectives of the research were to make women and their needs visible, and to contribute towards developing a greater understanding of how women are affected by social housing policies directed at the poor urban sectors. Research methods used include interviews with women heads of households and key informants. The paper concludes with recommendations on how housing and human settlements policies can become gender-aware.
Exploring the potential for primary environmental care: rapid appraisal in squatter communities in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil
This paper discusses the methods of collecting information in a field study carried out in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil) a suburb of Salvador. The study was part of a training exercise for students of the "International Course for Primary Health Care Managers at District Level in Developing Countries" based in Italy. The study also aimed to explore the potential for Primary Environmental Care and identify ways by which the local health district could support squatter communities. A rapid appraisal was carried out in three squatter communities. Secondary data was analysed, life history interviews were conducted, a "risk map" was drawn in which local participants geographically located problems, focus groups and ranking, key informant interviews, ten institutions with an interest in environmental issues were interviewed, and a feed-back meeting was held for all community members. It is concluded that RRA is well suited to study fast-changing environments, a potential danger of the exercise is taken to be undue expectation-raising of the local community. Finally "microplans" are introduced as a possible means of making RRA action oriented. Five pages are devoted to illustrations arising from the exercises.
This study suggests a comprehensive strategy for dealing with the problems of environmental sanitation in urban Indonesia. The objectives were: to propose strategies for environmental sanitation which involve and capitalize on local participation; to initiate a process of consultation with local communities aimed at envisaging suitable work approaches acceptable for both beneficiaries and local government institutions. The strategies suggested by the study will be based on: 1) investigation of the behavior and perceptions of urban populations 2) improved understanding of the factors influencing individual and collective choice of water and sanitation options 3) better comprehension of how urban dwellers view the usefulness of the municipal institutions in providing water, sanitation and solid waste services as compared to services provided by the informal sector or by the households themselves 4) an understanding of how the degree of envrionmental awareness varies among groups with different socio-economic characteristics. The study is divided into two parts; first is the Rapid Urban Appraisal (RUA) in the fifteen selected kampungs, second is a detailed interview survey of 800 respondents in the 15 kampungs. This report presents the preliminary findings of the RUA only, including details of group discussions and card games used to rank people's perceptions of environmental problems confronting them.
This report discusses the results of a community survey conducted to establish the scope of run-off water problems, and to identify ways to promote community cooperation and participation. Prior to the survey, researchers consulted secondary sources. Survey interviews were conducted by 32 students and five university staff during a one-day field visit. People were interviewed about the runoff problem and associated issues. Then patterns in the information were identified by first listing all the issues people discussed and then identifying themes around the issues. Recommendations include: be aware of the different levels of understanding people have of problems; establish common ground in problem perception/problem solving; and, encourage people to commit themselves to community action.
Rapid urban envrionmental assessment: a first step towards environmental management in cities of the developing world
This article describes the framework of a rapid urban environmental assessment approach as developed by the Urban Management and Environment Program. First, an urban environmental indicators questionnaire is designed. Then, an outline for an environmental profile is developed. Finally, environmental consultations and 'town meetings' are held - according to local custom - to discuss urban environmental problems, priorities and solutions. Overall, the process aims to provide an informational and consensual basis for preparing an urban environmental management strategy. Primarily uses questionnaire rather than PRA methods to gather information and ranks the information by combining it with that gathered from town meetings, using predetermined criteria to assess the relative importance of the problems.
This is a newsletter which describes the formation of the Midnet PRA group and includes a number of very short articles and thoughts on practitioners experiences with PRA in Southern Africa. Experiences shared include working with young people, in education, with periurban communities, for catchment management and for land reform. The methods used are discussed with details of venn diagrammes for community organisation, historical time lines. There are reports from trainings in Namaqualand and Namibia. The thoughts that emerged from evaluation/ reflection and planning meetings included the ideas of rapid learning and sharing and the need for more training. The final article summarises the PRA and gender workshop held at IIED in December 1993.
This paper considers the adaptation of Participatory Rural Appraisal to an urban artisanal fisheries environment in Conakry, Guinea. It describes how the Ministry of Agricultural and Animal Resources (responsible for fisheries), artisanal fishing port users, and the regional West African Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries Programme (IDAF) of the FAO have been collaborating to develop methods to help the fishing port users and the government fisheries officers work effectively together. PRA was used in order to increase the awareness of port users and port authorities of the operational conditions of the port, prioritising problems. Methods of fishing, processing and marketing were also examined. A significant finding was the large number of groups involved, none of whom felt they could take any responsibility. A port users committee was therefore set up, which was involved in following through the initial PRA. Fisheries officers were trained in PRA, and were able to link their planning skills with the specialised knowledge of the fishermen, traders, smokers and boat builders to set up 'mini-projects'. The conclusion is that the use of PRA within the government structure creates flexibility in planning, transferring responsibility to the managing committee.