PIDOW (Participative Integrated Development of Watersheds): Gulbarga - Towards a PIDOW Model of Watershed Management
This paper discusses the development of a participative approach to watershed management in PIDOW, a collaborative programme involving the NGO MYRADA in India. It notes that an areas surveyed by RRA was ecologically degraded and weak in institutions and skills. This led to calls for assisting in design and building of local institutions to manage watershed resources. Effective participation in watershed management requires that the area considered is neither too large nor too small, and that management is decentralised to village groups. PIDOW also emphasises integration of forestry programmes, animal husbandry practices, and credit programmes with soil and water management at the watershed level. This paper explores and explains the rationale for the development of the PIDOW approach.
The Agro-Forestry Project in Burkina Faso: An Analysis of Popular Participation in Soil and Water Conservation
This is a brief summary of the well-known Projet Agro-Forestier (PAF) in Burkina Faso, which has had much success promoting rock bunds as a soil and water conservation and harvesting method. One reason for success is considered to be the strong involvement of farmers in the design and building of the bunds, which are basically an improvement of a traditional technique. Another factor is the strength of the bunds. The fact that a few women have also been trained is mentioned, but also that more attention should be given to them considering their important role in agriculture.
The report, written for an Arid Lands Workshop, very briefly discusses the main issues in SWC in sub-Saharan Africa. A list of "do's" for participatory soil and water conservation are then briefly discussed, which are mostly to do with the organisational side of SWC, rather than the technical. A short analysis is made of the character of Oxfam-funded SWC projects which concludes that the Oxfam projects are innovative and successful at getting the local population involved when compared to other such projects in the area. Four short case studies, from Burkina Faso, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia, end the report.
This document reports on an RRA conducted in the Upper Mille and Cheleka catchments development project in Wollo province, Ethiopia. Its goals were (i) to test the applicability of RRA to the work of the Ethiopian Red Cross Society, and (ii) to analyse two peasant associations and suggest possible innovations to benefit their members. This introduction outlines a form of RRA known as agroecosystem analysis (AEA). Its methods and procedure of implementation are described: sub-groups examined diversification in space through mapping, transects, and analysing home gardens, and diversification in time through seasonal calendars. A second section examines the importance of diversification for security, improvement of production and purchasing power, and to act as a catalyst for overall development. The results of the RRA's in two peasant associations comprise the bulk of the report. For each, key issues are identified (e.g. land use, water resources, livestock, crops, health, forest resources), and strategies for diversification are examined (e.g. irrigation, land use patterns, revegetation, experimenting with new crops, clean water supply, development of home gardens, reforestation, credit etc.). The report ends with comments on the use of RRA in development planning and the role of RRA in developing management concepts and process in peasant associations.
This paper focuses on the role of an NGO, MYRADA, in fostering participation in collaborative watershed management projects in India. It was decided that effective participation required the size of watershed management areas had to be small enough for people to be familiar with, and for families to be able to function together. the PIDOW project aimed to build their management capacities. This paper (i) presents an assessment of the degree of people's participation in various aspects of soil and water conservation, and forestry and horticulture programmes; (ii) explores what is meant by effective participation, and the roles of staff members in fostering participation; (iii) discusses structural features of people's institutions; and (iv) presents an analysis of groups in three PIDOW mini watersheds. This paper would be of interest to those involved in participatory watershed management projects, particularly those involving collaboration between government, NGO's and local people.
Resource Management, Population, and Local Institutions in Katheka: A Case Study of Effective Natural Resources Management in Machakos, Kenya
This report describes in detail the structure and operation of village institutions in Katheka Sublocation in Machakos, Kenya, with regard to natural resources management. It concludes that the village is an effective organisational unit to foster participation in project planning and implementation. villagers understand the relation between improved natural resource management and sustainable food production, and institutional structures are already in place in many countries. What is needed is organising and mobilising village institutions. This can be done through training of village leaders, for example by using 'exemplar' villages, carrying out PRAs and developing village resource management plans.
This paper presents a methodology for participatory evaluation of small group capacities and performance that has been developed for water-user associations in Sri Lanka. The system devised was one of self evaluation and was presented to the farmer groups as a system of self strengthening. The process of self evaluation is described in some detail in the first section of the article which consists of five activity areas in which farmers assess their own performance. The activity areas range from the economic/material activities of the project groups to the organisation and development of the groups. The approach was designed to be an iterative and consultative one i.e. the criteria for evaluation, although initiated by the programme were to be agreed and selected by the program participants themselves. The paper lists the different stages of the process and describes six reasons or rationales for the use of such an approach. Briefly, the paper concludes by identifying some of the more prominent problems associated by this approach.
This long and detailed study describes how the mandal (administrative area) of Devikere in Jagalar, Karnataka State was selected as the appropriate site for an Action Aid anti-poverty project. A socio-economic survey was conducted by a multi-disciplinary team using mainly RRA techniques. The methodology employed appears to have much in common with farming systems research. A section of the report is devoted to health issues. This includes: nutrition and food availability; mother and child wellbeing, health practices and beliefs; the environment; housing; occupation and health services. The anthropological/ethnographic technique of using case studies of individuals adds a strong human dimension to the study. Separate sections are devoted to women, infrastructure and sanitation, and socio-economic conditions.
This report presents the results of a PRA focusing on natural resources management in Kenya. It contains descriptions of historical background on the locality, natural resources, water and soil conservation, agricultural practices, discussions of key social issues and infrastructure (health and education) and analysis of institutions and local leadership. Problems and opportunities are identified, and a village resource management plan was devised. Action by the community and other actors as a result of the PRA is discussed, and some problems in implementation are noted. The report ends with reflections on PRA and the participatory planning process. Positive reflections include enabling the community to undertake their own analysis, promoting an integrated view of development, and development of the village plan. Problems included insufficient participation by marginal groups and by women, and the feeling that PRA is inappropriate to statistical analysis.
A Rapid-Assessment Survey of the Irrigation Component of the Anuradhapura Dry-Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP)
A rapid assessment survey of a representative sample of tanks was conducted to provide an overview of the irrigation component of the Anuradhapura Dry Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP). The study traced the development of each sample tank from the pre-project situation to head works construction and later downstream development and work. The questionnaire used was based on rapid assessment questionnaires and covered four general topics : i) Tank construction, ii) The settlement process, iii) The agricultural economy, iv) Irrigation operation and management The questionnaire was compiled through field observations and group interviews normally comprising 5-10 farmers. Farmer input was considerable and the tank selection was in the majority of cases (74%) came from rural development societies. A key policy implication arising from the study was the need for greater farmer participation at the implementation stage i.e settlement and involvement of farmers prior to or while investments are made in the system. A participatory approach to such system development may outpace and outproduce a construction-oriented approach.
Of dialogue, debate and development: the use of Participatory Rural Appraisal methods to improve farmer managed irrigation systems in Kenya.
A participatory rural appraisal approach is presented in which a multidisciplinary team works with the community to assess its problems and opportunities relating to resource management. Water supply and distribution are one aspect of the approach. It takes a holistic perspective of the factors that impinge on a community's progress and seeks to help the local people to identify their problems and select strategies to help mitigate the situation.
This, the key-note address at a national symposium in India, argues that planners, administrators and scientists working on watershed development are too far removed from the realities of farmers to suggest effective plans and solutions to problems. For effective (and therefore scientific) approaches, people must be central to watershed development. The paper suggests elements of a new government organization structure for watershed development, in which states must play a key role. These are specific to India and administrative structures found there.