This reports on the activities of an Integrated Pest Management scheme and particularly its Extension and Women Project in the Philippines. The project highlights the role of women farmers and assists them in performing their role with appropriate technology, if one exists, and if not, develops one with their participation. The programme comprises a multi-disciplinary group of researchers consisting entirely of women. The participatory research approach is concluded to lessen the lead time for introducing the technology to its subsequent learning and adoption. It makes the client feel involved in the process and also gives her the option to decide whether it will benefit her or not. The paper accepts the inherent limitations of the approach and the need for fine-tuning the methodology proposed.
The Nhlangwini Integrated Rural Development Project aims to empower local people, in order that they may improve their quality of life, by helping them develop strategies for addressing basic needs. The Nhlangwini Ward is situated in southern KwaZulu, South Africa. Three workshops were held over a period of three months during 1989. The first examined development problems in the area; the second specifically probed those problems associated with family planning; the third was a development planning workshop, employing visual techniques described in some detail by the paper. Participants were asked to draw local resources by imagining they could view the area from a helicopter. The process of adopting visual techniques has resulted in a change in emphasis - as a result of findings, the integrated development programme has switched approaches with regard to issues facing women, and in terms of its goal setting mechanisms.
Farmers of different wealth will have different problems and needs, and varying ability to adopt proposed technologies. Agricultural research should take into account such differences, in order that research priorities be correctly determined and the relevant innovations developed. This paper reports on a wealth ranking procedure carried out in three upland village in the Philippines: Pong-on, Barrack and Cogon. It contains sections on the following: the preparation for the project; the card sorting methodology adopted; and lessons learnt and recommendations. The ranking exercise was found to be quick and simple, and produced valuable results.
A theoretical framework for data-economising appraisal procedures with applications to rural development planning
The paper's objective is to construct a general framework which will increase the useful data, while reducing the cost of data collection in developing countries. The search for useful principles proceeds from the economics of information, via Karl Popper's principle of error reduction, and the use of information cybernetics in public decision-making, to the design of more cost-effective models of development processes, and the significance of alternative hierarchical administrative structures for the utility obtained from primary data. These components are combined into a unified logical framework. An integrated approach to management information is identified as a desirable adjunct for its application in practice.
Indigenous People's Knowledge and Informal Agricultural Extension and Research in Southern Amazonia: the case of the Mynkys.
The status of local agricultural knowledge in relation to the formal scientific, institutionalised agricultural knowledge of the research and extension services in southern Amazonia is analysed through detailed case study of the experience of the Mynky Indians of Mato-Grosso, Brazil. In this case study, the internal dynamic of the agricultural knowledge systems and practices of the Mynky Indians is examined in relation to other rural inhabitants of Amazonia, church as well as state. It discusses land-use systems and agriculture, Mynky social structure and the historical interaction between the Mynky and the development process. Finally, the paper looks at rural people's knowledge versus theoretical basis of scientific rationality.
The purpose of this book is to outline the role of sociological analysis in the design of agricultural investment projects. The paper deals with a wide-range of disciplinary approaches including rural sociology, anthropology, farming systems diagnosis, "reserche/developpement", poverty alleviation, people's participation, gender analysis, common property resources, rapid rural appraisal and social soundness analysis. The paper is intended to assist managers to make informed choices between different types of sociological surveys and data-gathering methods. [Abstract based on mimeo version]
It introduces the idea of rapid appraisal within the context of rural development. Its key themes are the cultural tensions that arise in rural development research efforts; the scope of RRA, its function and principles, and its challenge in developing a new professionalism, based on rigour and cost effectiveness. In emphasizing the need for eclecticism, inventiveness and versatility, and in questioning some conventional values in research, especially in statistics, it does not undervalue traditional standards and methods where they fit well. It acknowledges that it is easy to be rapid and wrong.
This paper considers ways in which farmers' own analysis, method and scope, can be documented and explored. It draws out the partially complementary nature and some of the differences with regard to PRA and FPR (Farmer Participatory Research). PRA methods tend to emphasize the visual, while FPR methods are more verbal and observation based. Visual methods have strengths. Farmers have greater capacity to diagram and analyse than most outsiders have supposed, and farmers are proving to be good facilitators of analysis by other farmers. The challenge is to further develop, spread, test and improve farmers' analysis through these and other methods.
The report on a five-day workshop, organized by the Bay of Bengal's Programme - Post Harvest Fisheries Project and Outreach, which looked at various aspects of PRA. Topics examined included post-harvest activities, credit, women and government links. Exercises were carried out helping to familiarize the workshop participants with certain PRA techniques: matrix scoring, trend diagrams, wealth ranking and the like. An actual series of PRA activities were carried in a small coastal village - Alikuppam, as part of the workshop. The paper also reviews the comments of various groups attending the workshop, as to the application of PRA in their areas of concern. These groups included NGO staff, policy-makers and planners as well as more senior staff from government. This article also contains excerpts from a conversation between Peter Colaco and James Mascarenhas, director of OUTREACH, who acted as the principal resource person for the workshop.
The chapter describes the procedure known as Agroecosystem Analysis. This rests on the assumption that analysis, understanding and approaches to improvement of an agroecosystem are best gained from strategic knowledge of that system, as opposed to an attempt to create a complete model. The analysis is based on a week-long workshop aimed at sythesising the approaches of people from different disciplines and attaining useful data from case-study sites. The object of such a workshop is to create key questions concerning an agroecosystem and to stimulate research into answers to those questions.
It sets out to discuss the rise of agroecosystems analysis and rapid rural appraisal, as well as charting participatory methods of analysis. More specifically the paper contains sections on the following: (1) agroecosystem concepts; (2) agroecosystem analysis; (3) Rapid Rural Appraisal; and (4) Participatory Analysis.
This paper defines agroecosystems and examines the variety of strategies used to create such a system such as productivity, stability, sustainability and equitability. It states that agricultural development involves a trade-off between these properties. It demonstrates this through selected examples from agricultual history, including the origins of agriculture, manorial and modern Western agriculture and the Green Revolution in Indonesia. It is suggested that these properties may be used normatively as combined criteria for evaluating the performance of agricultural development programmes and projects.
There is a brief review of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Agroecosystem Analysis (AA). The concepts underpinning these methods, particularly the emphasis on locally attained data, are explained, and their application is expounded. The multidisciplinary aspect of these methods is focused upon. There is a detailed bibliography.
Rapid Rural Appraisal strategies for collecting and analysing data: Papua New Guinea Export Tree Crops Study
This paper establishes models for the collection and analysing of data for the Papua New Guinea Tree Crops Study. Four schemes of rural data collection are distinguished: pure monitoring; research for large-scale projects; research that is participatory and small-scale; and, research that strikes a balance btween the second and third schemes. The paper states that the Papua New Guinea Export Tree Crops Study requires characteristics from all of these schemes and attempts to provide a sythesis of "top down" and "bottom up" approaches for this study.
Sustainability in Agricultural Development: trade-offs with productivity, stability, and equitability
This paper aims to estabish a working definition of sustainable agriculture. The paper advocates Agroecosystem Analysis, using the concepts of agroecosystems, agroecosystem hierarchies, agroecosystem properties and their trade-offs to stimulate interdisciplinary analysis. The paper argues that defining sustainability in terms of preservation or duration has little practical value. Long-term experiments to measure persistence are of research interest but take too long to constitute a practicable analytical method. By contrast, measuring the ability of an agroecosystem to withstand stress and shock is a subject for experiments using classical agricultural mothods. High sustainability is not the only desirable aspect of agricultural production and in many situations it may be necessary to trade a degree of sustainability for higher levels of productivity or equibility.