This research report presents the findings of case study research with youth in six locations in Zimbabwe, carried out within the Power, Violence, Citizenship and Agency (PVCA) programme. It shows how young people experience growing up as citizens in a country known for its repressive regime, and highlights the differences for young men and young women.
Young people consider political violence as one of many forms of violence and other challenges they face in life. Election periods bring increased risk, when youth feel targeted. After the turbulence of elections has waned, surveillance by state security agents persists, affecting how young people use the public sphere. Between elections, forms of structural violence pose more challenges to youth than physical, political violence: patronage along party or ethnic lines is a major barrier to finding jobs, and generational differences deny young people a voice. High unemployment levels can result in youth participating in violence orchestrated by political actors.
This research shows also that family and peers have a strong influence on how young people choose to engage in the public sphere and respond to the polarised political environment. Youth empowerment strategies thus need to go beyond economic empowerment. This report argues that a shift in vision is required so that government, aid agencies and civil society recognise the importance of active citizenship among youth and make it a priority area for interventions. Programmes should build the citizen capabilities of young people and improve relations between them, their parents and communities, and public authority.
This draft report gives account of the Save the Children (UK) work on child protection 2001-2002, in the Kotkai afghan refugee camp, Pakistan. The work is described in three phases. In the first phase conventional methods of child protection monitoring were adopted, where outsiders were used. In the second phase a participatory monitoring strategy was introduced, using some PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) tools to collect information on the topics given in phase one. In the third phase (from April 2002 and onwards) the participatory Reflect-Action approach was used to monitor the child protection issues. The methodology was used to monitor child protection concerns, and childrenÆs taking a leading role in advocating the protection concerns speeded up the response. The service delivery agencies took immediate actions in almost every concern raised by the children. Lessons learned from the approach are highlighted. Impacts of the Reflect-action approach are detailed in the context of empowerment, change in social behaviour, and capacity building. The processes of the different Reflect-Action circles (focussing around education system, children under stress, school drop outs, disease, water shortage, needs, drug addiction, shelter, and early marriages) are described briefly in separate sections specifying diagrams used for visualisation, e.g. sketches, cause and effect charts, pair-wise ranking, maps, and matrix ranking charts. The implications of scaling up child protection monitoring are discussed and a future strategy for child protection in Pakistan is presented. Three annexes are included which detail the issues identified through the three phases of the project. A brief note describing PRA is also incorporated.
Children's participation in community-based disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change
Global knowledge of the experience and perspectives of displaced children is limited. Much of the knowledge is researcher-centred and does not reflect the perspectives of the children, other documentary evidence is anecdotal. Based on the author's previous experience and secondary sources in Sri Lanka, Thailand and Peru, this paper examines some of the key questions and issues regarding the participation of refugee and displaced children in societal and programmatic processes. It begins by reviewing some of the structural, operational and conceptual reasons why children's participation is, as a rule, highly restricted in refugee and displaced communities, and concludes by considering some recent development in the field. It includes examples from Cambodia, Laos, South Africa, Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo.
This report outlines a local community project conducted in the Hollingdean area of Brighton in the UK in 1999. The participatory appraisal exercises conducted sought to highlight the most important issues identified by the local residents of Hollingdean. The report outlines the methodologies used and then goes on to detail the various issues that were identified:
| Children and young people| Transport| Sheltered housing| Housing| Drugs| Community safety| Environmental issues| Other community issues| Food
The report is illustrated, with visual examples and photographic documentation of some of the methods used. In addition, it presents a number of possible solutions to some of the problems identified and an update on some of those already implemented.
This video shows Sudanese refugees in a refugee camp discussing gender relations and gender activities of their livelihoods. This is done through explanations by men and women of diagrams drawn on the ground, and by role play and dramatisations. The latter highlights the issue of girlsÆ education, discussing issues such as pregnancy and the effect of domestic work on school performance.
Impacts and institutions, partners and principles : third review of the development and use of Participatory Rural Appraisal and planning by Redd Barna, Uganda.
In 1994 Redd Barna Uganda started developing an approach to community-based planning using PRA (PRAP) that placed children and their issues at the centre of the planning process and that also aimed to recognise differences within communities. This report is based on discussions involving project staff, members of three partner organisations and villagers from seven communities. The discussion reflected on the PRAP process to examine which aspects were proving beneficial and for whom and those that were proving problematic with an aim of identifying areas for improvement.
Strategies for scaling up the work are also examined and prospects for encouraging more community based monitoring of the PRAP process as a strategy for strengthening impact.
This book includes a wide ranging collection of papers which have been divided into sections dealing with communicating with children, gender empowerment, community interactive processes, approaches and insights, ethics and values of community participation and organizational capacity building.