This draft report gives account of the Save the Children (UK) work on child protection 2001-2002, in the Kotkai afghan refugee camp, Pakistan. The work is described in three phases. In the first phase conventional methods of child protection monitoring were adopted, where outsiders were used. In the second phase a participatory monitoring strategy was introduced, using some PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) tools to collect information on the topics given in phase one. In the third phase (from April 2002 and onwards) the participatory Reflect-Action approach was used to monitor the child protection issues. The methodology was used to monitor child protection concerns, and childrenÆs taking a leading role in advocating the protection concerns speeded up the response. The service delivery agencies took immediate actions in almost every concern raised by the children. Lessons learned from the approach are highlighted. Impacts of the Reflect-action approach are detailed in the context of empowerment, change in social behaviour, and capacity building. The processes of the different Reflect-Action circles (focussing around education system, children under stress, school drop outs, disease, water shortage, needs, drug addiction, shelter, and early marriages) are described briefly in separate sections specifying diagrams used for visualisation, e.g. sketches, cause and effect charts, pair-wise ranking, maps, and matrix ranking charts. The implications of scaling up child protection monitoring are discussed and a future strategy for child protection in Pakistan is presented. Three annexes are included which detail the issues identified through the three phases of the project. A brief note describing PRA is also incorporated.
This practical guide published by Save the Children is aimed at all organisations that are looking for ways to consult with children and young people. It can be used for drawing up a consultation strategy: there are checklists and question and answer sections as well as examples of good practice in reference to the British Charter Mark criteria. The manual looks at
- Why children should be consulted?
- The principles and practice of consultation, which includes levels of service impact on children and young people, child protection, first steps and planning checklists.
- Charter Mark criteria for consulting with children and young people: indicators and examples of good practice
- A selection of methods for consulting children and young people, including activities for children and young people
In finishes with details of the Children Charter Mark Award, a summary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and "useful organisations" and "resources" lists.
The editorial of this special issue on Children's Participation: evaluating effectiveness discusses the focus of the issue and gives details of the guest editor.
How can ordinary citizens - and the organizations and movements with which they engage - make changes in national policies which affect their lives, and the lives of others around them? Under what conditions does citizen action contribute to more responsive states, pro-poor policies and greater social justice? What is needed to overcome setbacks, and to consolidate smaller victories into 'successful' change? These are the questions taken up by this book which brings together eight studies of successful cases of citizen activism in South Africa, Morocco, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Turkey, India and the Philippines.
Community-Based Workshops for Evaluating and Planning Sanitation Programs: A Case Study of Primary Schools Sanitation in Lesotho
The Lesotho Primary Schools Sanitation Project, undertaken in 1976-9, had limited success. When a follow-up project was proposed, it was decided to hold workshops to find out the communities' views on how the follow-up should be designed. Workshop participants included school and community representatives, ministerial and donor agency representatives. This paper describes the results of those workshops held in March 1981. Most of the report discusses technical implications of the workshop discussions. A final section discusses the role of community based workshops in development planning.
This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved participation and was empowering for the participants reflects on existing power relationships and cultural context of Kenya and points to the need to create opportunities for youth where they engage with the broader community. Lessons that emerge out of the study focus on the importance of prioritizing monitoring and evaluation, the potential of youth to carry out effective monitoring and evaluation, and the need for researchers to engage respectfully with communities and participants.
This article begins by reviewing some of the general issues surrounding the evaluation of participation that emerged from a symposium on Children's Participation in Community Settings held in Norway in June 2000. It then examines opportunities and constraints shaping children's participation, what channels are being created for children to participate in their communities and what form these opportunities usually take. It finishes by reviewing areas of agreement among the symposium members, on qualities that characterise good settings for participation and how evaluation research should be conceptualised.
This paper examines participatory evaluation in projects of the NGO PLAN International in Senegal. Through brief case studies it compares the viability of PRA evaluations in urban and rural contexts, and reflects upon the extent to which the methods can be used to reach the least advantaged groups in the communities. A number of criteria are used in assessing PRA as an evaluation tool: limited dependence ono external facilitators; replicability; community 'buy-in' to the process; adaptability to local time constraints; broad participation; reliability of data; turn-around time from data collection to use. The author concludes that PRA is problematic in urban settings if a 'community' is assumed in the same way as in rural areas. Some aspects for improvement (e.g. need to be more focused, and to prevent it from being appropriated by certain groups to the exclusion of others) are discussed.
This document provides guidelines to be used as a reference for the implementation process of a proposed Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project in Uganda.
PRA is suggested as a key strategy to be used in the community planning and relevant techniques and training methods which can be used at each stage in the process are described. The guidelines also considrer the process of community mobilisation.
Impacts and institutions, partners and principles : third review of the development and use of Participatory Rural Appraisal and planning by Redd Barna, Uganda.
In 1994 Redd Barna Uganda started developing an approach to community-based planning using PRA (PRAP) that placed children and their issues at the centre of the planning process and that also aimed to recognise differences within communities. This report is based on discussions involving project staff, members of three partner organisations and villagers from seven communities. The discussion reflected on the PRAP process to examine which aspects were proving beneficial and for whom and those that were proving problematic with an aim of identifying areas for improvement.
Strategies for scaling up the work are also examined and prospects for encouraging more community based monitoring of the PRAP process as a strategy for strengthening impact.
Integrating formal sample surveys and Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques: summary based on Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques and the monitoring and evaluation of IFAD projects in Sudan
This summary is based on a report written for the Monitoring and Evaluation Division of the IFAD, with the general objective of examining the use of RRA methods for M&E. That report proposes a taxonomy of survey/RRA techniques and methods, which can be regarded as "a menu", thereby allowing choices to fit the precise needs of the user of information and institutional context. As such, the author argues, RRAs and formal surveys can be mixed to great effect. The criteria for such a taxonomy is outlined in this paper, as is a summary table of the main RRA techniques. The lessons from case study RRAs discussed in the original report are mostly positive, confirming "the value of weaving an RRA in to existing data" and showing how a low cost M&E system could be built on this. This is a useful and stimulating report with some clear summary diagrams and an extensive bibliography.
This is the second volume of the series 'Learning to Shareà' in which development practitioners continue to share lessons learnt from the field in the area of community participation. The experiences described in this book are all based in India and cover such topics as participatory eco-restoration, women's food calendar, participatory livestock development, participatory forestry, participatory village profile, bio-diversity monitoring, participatory need assessment, children's perceptions of livelihood and participatory impact assessment. See also, Volume I, shelf location 3171