Apprendiendo a enfrentar en forma práctica desastres como el Mitch: una guÝa metodológica de investigación
Esta edici¾n de En Acci¾n de la organizaci¾n Vecinos Mundiales se concentra en los efectos del huracßn Mitch en 1998 y los 10 years' de lluvia que baj¾ en cinco dÝas trajo la devastaci¾n ambiental y agrÝcola a AmÚrica Central. Los Vecinos Mundiales habÝan trabajado por muchos a±os en la promoci¾n de la conservaci¾n del suelo y del agua; el huracßn proporcion¾ una oportunidad para estudiar la eficacia de este trabajo en combatir los efectos desastrosos de un clima potencialmente destructivo y este boletÝn de noticias da a detalles su trabajo. DecidÝan realizar Investigaci¾n Acci¾n Participativa (IAP), un nivel del estudio que permita no solamente la implicaci¾n de Úsos lo mßs afectados por el clima - la gente local û pero tambiÚn otros participantes que ampliaron su propio conocimiento de los mÚtodos y los resultados de la investigaci¾n. El sistema usado era un apareamiento de lo parcelas de tierras con caracterÝsticas similares tales como sitio y vegetaci¾n, pero que proporcionaron el comparte de datos con una comparaci¾n directa de la cultivaci¾n agro-ecol¾gica y lo convencional. Se invit¾ a otras organizaciones de participar en el estudio y formar equipos con los granjeros, y todos los participantes atendieron a un taller para aprender las metodologÝas. Los mÚtodos usados para analizar diversas variables tales como vertiente, grueso del suelo superior, textura, materia orgßnica, insectos y animales, vegetaci¾n, erosi¾n, derrumbamientos de tierra, y prßcticas de la conservaci¾n son detallados junto con los resultados y las lecciones aprendidos.
Apprendre a affronter des catastrophes telles que le cyclone Mitch: un guide de recherche méthodologique
: Les effets de l'ouragan Mitch en 1998 et la pluie suivante qui est tombÚe en cinq jours de la valeur de 10 annÚes; a apportÚ la dÚvastation environnementale et agricole en AmÚrique Centrale. Les Voisins Mondiaux avaient travaillÚ pendant beaucoup d'annÚes sur la promotion de la conservation du sol et de lÆeau, et l'ouragan prÚsentait un moyen d'Útudier l'efficacitÚ de ce travail en combattant les effets dÚsastreux d'un climat potentiellement destructif ; ce bulletin donne les dÚtails de leur travail. Ils ont dÚcidÚ d'effectuer la Recherche Action Participative (RAP), un niveau d'Útude qui non seulement permet la participation de celles le plus considÚrablement affectÚs par le climat - les personnes locales - mais dÆautres participants qui ont augmentÚ leur propre connaissance par les mÚthodes et les rÚsultats de recherches. Le systÞme utilisÚ Útait un appareillement des parcelles de terrain avec les caractÚristiques semblables telles que l'endroit et la vÚgÚtation, mais qui ont fourni un partage des donnÚes par une comparaison directe de lÆagriculture Úcologique et celui conventionnelle. Des autres organismes ont ÚtÚ invitÚs pour participer Ó l'Útude et pour former des Úquipes avec les fermiers, et tous les participants ont participÚs Ó un atelier pour apprendre des mÚthodologies. Les mÚthodes utilisÚes pour analyser les diffÚrentes variables telles que la pente, lÆÚpaisseur du sol supÚrieure, la texture, la matiÞre organique, les insecte et les animaux, la vÚgÚtation, l'Úrosion, les Úboulements du terre, et les pratiques de la conservation sont dÚtaillÚs avec les rÚsultats et les leþons appris.
The Rural Community Network (RCN) in Northern Ireland embarked on a six-month feasibility study that examined the potential use and benefits of participatory research techniques to policy change and conflict resolution. This article discusses the findings of this research and critically assesses how participatory techniques can contribute to the aforementioned two areas. It also discusses consultation fatigue and the key contributing factors. The article concludes by describing a follow up action research programme, which will address some of the issues raised in the feasibility study.
This issue of Natural Resource Perspectives from ODI (Overseas Development Institute) considers the role of æconflict management assessment in community-based natural resource projects. The importance of conducting an assessment of the potential for conflict and its management in relation to a project intervention is stressed, and an assessment framework described. Within this framework the advantages of managing conflict through a consensual æwin-winÆ process of stakeholder negotiation are discussed. The following policy conclusions are made. Interventions to assist in the management of conflict within community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) should be preceded by a æconflict management assessment (CMA). This assessment should consider: (a) whether the conflict is likely to overwhelm the existing customary, institutional and legal approaches to conflict management, and if so whether it is appropriate to try to strengthen these; (b) whether, if the conflict is left alone, new conflict management mechanisms will organically materialise within an acceptable time-frame; and (c) whether the long-term benefits of allowing the conflict to transform itself into a positive force for social reform are outweighed by the short-term costs. Interventions for improved conflict management should be guided by an overall strategy which considers the full range of management options. Capacity building is a critical component of effective conflict management and a process of stakeholder negotiations is where the most creative and durable solutions will be found. Two factors support consensual æwin-winÆ negotiations as an effective strategy for managing conflicts in CBNRM: (a) the multi-stakeholder nature of such conflicts; and (b) the common ground that exists for sustaining renewable natural resources. Implementation of an overall strategy of conflict management will need to be periodically monitored to ensure that new external forces are neutral to the conflict, and that either a ædo-nothingÆ strategy is having the expected impact, or that the commitments embodied in a negotiated agreement are implemented in full and are effective.
Case Study on advocacy, influence and political participation in the Philippines: constituency-building and electoral advocacy with grassroots women in the Philippines
This case study describes how the membership federation of the Democratic Socialist Women of the Philippines (DSWP) has used advocacy to organise and advance the interests of grassrootsÆ women within the political arena. The advocacy experiences in this story range from local level denouncements in cases of domestic violence, to legislative reform, and to electoral organisation establishing a womenÆs political party and field women candidates for the Party List Law in 1998. The study is primarily a description of how a national federation mobilises its membership to advocate at different levels. The experience from DSWP provides lessons about organising the power of numbers and responds to a number of questions: how grassroots members are incorporated into and ultimately drive the advocacy agenda; how decisions are made at the community level and in the organisation so that the process is empowering and owned by the members; and how women and other disadvantaged groups have created alternative forms of political strategy and organisation in order to engage in politics and at the same time, transform political culture. The study was an initiative of the Asia FoundationÆs Global Women in Politics Program (GWIP) supported by USAID (United States Agency for International Development).advocacy, influence, Philippines, domestic violence, women, gender, legislation, election
Colombia's new Constitution of 1991 gave the status of citizen and participant to a people which had not historically enjoyed it. This implied the need for citizenship education and formation to enable people to take advantage of their new status. Many non-governmental organizations in Colombia immediately rose to the challenge. Some of these were newcomers to this field. Others, among them the Instituto Popular de Capacitaci¾n (IPC, Popular Training Institute), came to this task with a long history of working to deepen democracy in a range of ways. Christian Aid Colombia began to support IPC in the area of citizenship education in 1992. This case study represents a collaborative attempt, by Christian Aid with IPC's Democracy and Citizenship Team, to document the experience of IPC in promoting citizen participation from 1991 to the present. It aims to be, on the one hand, a piece of applied research that informs future practice in the field of citizen participation in local urban governance, and on the other, an advocacy resource for IPC and Christian Aid in Colombia and the UK, that illustrates the challenges faced in holding open spaces for democratic participation in a country in conflict. After an introduction the study sets the context and then moves on to look at the legal framework for citizen participation in local governance. Next, IPCÆs experiences in promoting citizen participation are documented, followed by a look at some key variables (gender, armed conflict and other challenges). The final section looks at learning from the experience.
Children's participation in community-based disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change
This toolkit draws on the lessons generated from learning projects and case studies supported under the Citizens and Governance programme of the Commonwealth Foundation. It offers practical guidance on how to promote the participation of citizens in governance. The contents of the toolkit include: the meaning of inclusive governance; ways for citizens to organise and engage in governance; strategies for multi-sectoral partnerships; key themes that emerge in governance, such as conflict, gender and power; suggestions for participatory methods in governance, including learning circles, popular theatre and role play; and methods for inclusive governance capacity building of citizens, intermediaries and government officials. Brief summaries of action-learning projects and case studies from the Citizens and Governance Programme from: India, the Caribbean, Vanuatu, Tanzania, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Zimbabwe, UK, New Zeeland, Africa, Malaysia, Canada and Belize; are presented. A toolkit CD-ROM designed to run on Windows 95/98/XP and MacOS9 is also incorporated. The CD-ROM contains the toolkit in an electronic format and has a resource bank of downloadable materials, such as relevant publications, materials used by the project partners and a word bank which provides explanations of, and proverbs illustrating terms common in the debate about civil society and governance which project partners themselves have furnished.
Combining different knowledges: community-based climate change adaptation in small island developing states
This book presents the role of communication in 8 case studies of natural resource management situations in developing countries. The case studies included are: Community based natural resource management in Namibia; Pastoralist communication in Kenya; Indigenous forest management in Cambodia; Recovering from conflict in Vietnam; Internet radio in Sri Lanka; Regional networking in Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Creating local organic markets in Turkey; Environmental education and Communication in El Salvador. It is designed as a learning tool and each case-study has specific learning objectives for the reader focussed around different aspects of communication in natural resource management. Questions are posed as every case-study develops serving as a base of discussion and inviting the reader to reflective thinking and drawing their own conclusions.