This document includes, details of the process used to review ActionAids programme in Somaliland and provides both a summary and details of the findings. The review was carried out by a group of both men and women composed of community based organisation members, village elders, staff from government institutions and other professionals. Mapping, interviews and small group discussions were used to elicit data on availability, relevance, accessibility, utilisation, coverage, quality, effort, efficiency and impact indicators.
This is a brief list outlining the advantages and disadvantages of using PRA in the context of refugee emergencies. It analyses the pros and cons of PRA in terms of 'preparedness and response', 'communication and co-ordination' and 'contextual issues'.
Bringing the vertical dimension to the negotiating table: preliminary assessment of a conflict resolution case in the Philippines
Since time immemorial humans have been increasingly competing for natural resources. Their occurrence and access have been used to exert power and authority, influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life, and economic and social development. From as early as 2200 BC, humans have tried to document and legalise rights to resources with the use of maps, a geographic representation of the earth that has since been considered as an authoritative reference, and accorded due (and sometimes undue) respect and credibility. In managing conflicts bound to the territory, the use of maps is widespread and helps locate and visualise the source of disagreements, which frequently involves boundaries defining the geographical scope of resource use and tenure. Processes leading to consensual conflict resolution are complex and articulated and need the concurrence of several factors to lead the contenders to consider the solution of the conflict from broader perspectives.
In remote, poorly served areas, community-based mapping methods can help in addressing boundary issues through the visualization of the landscape, associated land uses and settlement pattern. In the Philippines, the use of 3-D models began in 1993. Integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Participatory 3-D Modelling (P3DM) has been used among indigenous peoples under the auspices of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and lately, of the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP). This article discusses how the method has contributed to a successfully conflict resolution case in the Cordillera Region of the Philippines.
Comprehensive overview of participatory approaches to monitoring, focusing on community monitoring of environmental changes and natural resource management interventions. The Working Paper draws on an extensive review of published literature and interviews with practitioners with experience in participatory monitoring. Ten case studies are presented and comparatively analysed and discussed. The paper begins by providing a general overview of conventional monitoring and then discusses the basis of participatory monitoring approaches, especially their impacts and benefits, how participation is achieved, and how indicators are perceived and developed. Trade-offs in meeting diverse, often conflicting needs and objectives, particularly between the need for scientific rigour on the one hand, and enhanced participation in participatory monitoring process on the other. The last section of the paper presents and compares three different categories of approaches to participatory monitoring which have been successful at achieving community involvement. These approaches are methodologies that are developed from the use of PRA, those that use oral testimony, and those that adapt scientific approaches to ecological assessment. Finally, current gaps in our understanding of participatory environmental monitoring are identified. The review finds that further documentation is required of the negotiations that occur within and between stakeholder groups, particularly in terms of identifying and establishing different priorities and objectives. It further suggests that few approaches to monitoring involve all stakeholders in the complete monitoring process, which takes longer to establish and implement. The review highlights that the monitoring process must provide real and meaningful benefits for all stakeholders, especially for local people whose long term participation is central to the monitoring process.
Combining different knowledges: community-based climate change adaptation in small island developing states
Conflict-sensitive approaches to development, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding: a resource pack
This book explores the qualities of relationship, behaviour and effectiveness that the poor of Bangladesh consider important in the institutions with which they interact during periods of crisis. It arose out of a perceived lack by the World Bank's Participatory Poverty Assessment (undertaken to contribute towards the World Development Report 2000/01) to look at the area of crisis and institutions. The main findings are: " Crisis is multi-dimensional, and related to exposure to mishaps, stresses and risks, as well as to dangers in the physical environment, in society and in the economy, and in administrative and legal systems. Events like floods, droughts, deaths, etc., which affect almost everyone in the community trigger community actions for coping with the situation; " The poor have developed a number of survival strategies to cope with crisis, which are linked with the way assets are pooled and managed to reduce vulnerability; " The poor interact with a range of formal and informal institutions during crisis. Local government, police and court systems are manipulated for political purposes by successive governments, making the poor most vulnerable since they lack political connections. Flaws in the health system have created the opportunity for corruption. Despite unanimous trust of NGOs by the poor, allegations of misuse of funds, gender discrimination, and nepotism have been made. The poor place much more of their trust in their local Community-Based Organisations for security and survival, and their inability to access state organisations". " A number of recommendations are made in the area of state institutions: pro-poor formal administration, anti-corruption, pro-poor health services, increasing women's security; in the area of pro poor policies: land reforms, safety nets; in strengthening NGO-state links; and the need for overall coherence in these initiatives".
This CISALVA manual presents guidelines on how to design and conduct a 'radio forum' or, a gathering and focus group discussion centered around a shared audio story. Although it recognises that radio forum, as a means of awareness raising, can centre around any topic, the author's work, and therefore the guidelines, refer specifically to narratives describing cases of domestic violence. This document outlines step-by-step guidelines for preparation, organisation, and implementation of a radio forum. It also provides various suggestions for post-radio discussion animation and facilitation. The manual also contains information on the author NGO, CISALVA. Resumes of sample stories are provided at the end of the manual.
A seven day workshop focusing on participatory methods for community development was held in Natal, South Africa. The workshop used the SARAR approach, which 'aims to support the growth of self-esteem by facilitating 'learning events' which encourage people to develop their creative and analytic capacity to identify and solve problems'. Using methods similar to PRA, such as community mapping, the facilitators tried to address issues around gender conflict. This account analyses how the workshop went wrong : the relationship between facilitators (white women) and the largely male black participants broke down completely due to underlying racial and gender tensions, and also the 'inflexibility' of the programme. Intensely personal reflections by the facilitators on their roles reveal the 'many layers of gender dynamics' and the implicit power issues in outsiders trying to initiate such discussions through 'top-down and academic methods'. Finally, the facilitators analyze how they could have learned to welcome the knowledge brought by the 'disturbers' (the men who 'resisted' the workshop) and the 'shadow' side of creativity and participation.