Apres quatre annees d'activites relatives a la gestion des ressources naturelles et a la resolution de conflits, le programme d'amenagement et de gestion des ressources naturelles (PAGRN) a entrepris de mars a avril 1996 une evaluation des institutions locales. Il s'agit d'un inventaire institutionnel qui vise a analyse les forces et faiblesses des associations locales afin d'identifier et de programmer les appuis necessaires leur renforcement. Cette analyse repose sur les resultats d'enquetes menees a partir d'un guide d'entretien dans les treize villages du Kelka, Mali.
The Mahaweli Project: a quarter century retrospect and prospect. Dependency vs empowerment : developing a sustainable management system based on farmer participation.
The Mahaweli Authority Sri Lanka was established to implement the largest multi-purpose Integrated Development Programme ever launched in the country. It is responsible for engineering construction work as well as the establishment of human settlements providing irrigation facilities, social infrastructure, post settlement services, maintenance and management of the settlements and their infrastructure. The MASL system has traditionally had a topdown approach which has contributed to dependancy as well as incurring a high financial cost. Since 1994 the MASL strategy has aimed at a gradual transfer of management of settlements to farmer organisations, thereby overcoming dependancy through empowerment of the farmers, using participatory methods. This has required time, and attitude and behavioral changes at all levels of MASL. This seminar paper details the MASL system and the move towards a sustainable management system based on farmer participation.
This issue of Natural Resource Perspectives from ODI (Overseas Development Institute) considers the role of æconflict management assessment in community-based natural resource projects. The importance of conducting an assessment of the potential for conflict and its management in relation to a project intervention is stressed, and an assessment framework described. Within this framework the advantages of managing conflict through a consensual æwin-winÆ process of stakeholder negotiation are discussed. The following policy conclusions are made. Interventions to assist in the management of conflict within community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) should be preceded by a æconflict management assessment (CMA). This assessment should consider: (a) whether the conflict is likely to overwhelm the existing customary, institutional and legal approaches to conflict management, and if so whether it is appropriate to try to strengthen these; (b) whether, if the conflict is left alone, new conflict management mechanisms will organically materialise within an acceptable time-frame; and (c) whether the long-term benefits of allowing the conflict to transform itself into a positive force for social reform are outweighed by the short-term costs. Interventions for improved conflict management should be guided by an overall strategy which considers the full range of management options. Capacity building is a critical component of effective conflict management and a process of stakeholder negotiations is where the most creative and durable solutions will be found. Two factors support consensual æwin-winÆ negotiations as an effective strategy for managing conflicts in CBNRM: (a) the multi-stakeholder nature of such conflicts; and (b) the common ground that exists for sustaining renewable natural resources. Implementation of an overall strategy of conflict management will need to be periodically monitored to ensure that new external forces are neutral to the conflict, and that either a ædo-nothingÆ strategy is having the expected impact, or that the commitments embodied in a negotiated agreement are implemented in full and are effective.
Based on a case study in Nigeria this article examines stratification of PRA sessions as a tool when using PRA in conflict ridden settings.
This paper reports on how wellbeing ranking was adapted to allow displaced people in Western Kenya to develop their own strategies for rehabilitation and also to identify appropriate interventions for agencies working with them. This method was found to be quick, making it possible to implement some projects within weeks of discussions and also led to an increased awareness among neighbours from different tribal origins of the common effects of the disturbances and their shared needs.
Irrigation management transfer in Turkey : early experience with a national program under rapid implementation.
Presents the case study of the Accelerated Irrigation Transfer Program in Turkey whereby transfer of government built and operated systems has taken place. The case study is of particular interest because of the speed of the process and also because the transfer of responsibility has been to local village or municipal governments or representative federations of villages or municipalities rather than to farmer associations which has been the norm in other countries.
The process adopted for transferring management responsibility is documented and reveals that there has been little participation by water users. Factors facilitating the process are identified and an initial assessment of impacts, benefits and costs is made and potential future problems and challenges suggested.
Contribución a una metodologÝa participativa para evaluar amenazas en áreas protegidas en conjunto con comunidades ruralese y/o indigenas.
Spanish language conference paper on use of PRA for evaluating different aspects of pressure on and conflict about communal national park resources.
Conference paper on use of PRA in conflict resolution in National Parks in Venzuela.
Report of a monthly meeting of The Participation Forum examining ways USAID has found to identify local priorities in Bosnia and support them even when sometimes they conflict with existing beliefs and necessitate rethinking programs.
Comprehensive overview of participatory approaches to monitoring, focusing on community monitoring of environmental changes and natural resource management interventions. The Working Paper draws on an extensive review of published literature and interviews with practitioners with experience in participatory monitoring. Ten case studies are presented and comparatively analysed and discussed. The paper begins by providing a general overview of conventional monitoring and then discusses the basis of participatory monitoring approaches, especially their impacts and benefits, how participation is achieved, and how indicators are perceived and developed. Trade-offs in meeting diverse, often conflicting needs and objectives, particularly between the need for scientific rigour on the one hand, and enhanced participation in participatory monitoring process on the other. The last section of the paper presents and compares three different categories of approaches to participatory monitoring which have been successful at achieving community involvement. These approaches are methodologies that are developed from the use of PRA, those that use oral testimony, and those that adapt scientific approaches to ecological assessment. Finally, current gaps in our understanding of participatory environmental monitoring are identified. The review finds that further documentation is required of the negotiations that occur within and between stakeholder groups, particularly in terms of identifying and establishing different priorities and objectives. It further suggests that few approaches to monitoring involve all stakeholders in the complete monitoring process, which takes longer to establish and implement. The review highlights that the monitoring process must provide real and meaningful benefits for all stakeholders, especially for local people whose long term participation is central to the monitoring process.