This long and detailed study describes how the mandal (administrative area) of Devikere in Jagalar, Karnataka State was selected as the appropriate site for an Action Aid anti-poverty project. A socio-economic survey was conducted by a multi-disciplinary team using mainly RRA techniques. The methodology employed appears to have much in common with farming systems research. A section of the report is devoted to health issues. This includes: nutrition and food availability; mother and child wellbeing, health practices and beliefs; the environment; housing; occupation and health services. The anthropological/ethnographic technique of using case studies of individuals adds a strong human dimension to the study. Separate sections are devoted to women, infrastructure and sanitation, and socio-economic conditions.
This article is a case study of the author's participatory research with the Annette Lomond garment workers' co-operative in the North East of England. It discusses the relationship between the researcher and the participants, power imbalances, accountability, empowerment, effects of the research project, and presentation of findings. She concludes that the aim of uniting research with action and education is not always possible within one project. This alters the balance of the relationship and the nature of accountability.
Coping with cost recovery: a study of the social impact of and responses to cost recovery in basic services (health and education) in poor communities in Zambia
The report deals with the social implications of the cost-recovery measures adopted in the Zambian health and education sectors since 1989. The focus of the study is on the impact of the charges on access to basic health care and primary education among the poorest sections of the urban and rural population. The report is also concerned with the way poor communities, and the most vulnerable households within them, cope with demands to contribute more. It concludes by reviewing alternative ways of ensuring that the poorest are able to maintain access to basic services. A mix of approaches were used, including a range of standard RRA methods, focus-group work and anthropological insights from more traditional sources. The study also drew on a baseline survey and intensive household studies which had been carried out over several years.
The KIDP is a long term project aimed at improving the socio-economic conditions of the population, in a sustainable way. This report details the findings of PRA work carried out to assess the impact of tourism in the area, an "industry" which is rapidly increasing. There is a brief description of the methodology and timetable, but the bulk of the report is the findings from the different areas studied. These include a general description, land use and housing as well as the impact of tourism on the economy, infrastructure, culture and the environment. Numerous diagrams are illustrated, as well as the findings from a questionnaire survey of local shops and hotels. These findings are summarised in the final section.
This report outlines Youth for Action's (YFA) understandings of RRA and PRA (Participatory Resource Appraisal), and outlines the reasons for adopting PRA: to bridge the previous gap between the needs of the people and YFA's plans, to facilitate the involvement of the community in all aspects of planning. The report is the result of a PRA exercise in one village, conducted to develop PRA techniques while learning with farmers to assess local resources, choices and wealth. The PRA methods employed are listed, the visual results presented, but the process of applications is not discussed in detail. The one exception is an appendix on "fodder preference ranking by farmers" at the back of the report. The bulk of the report presents the findings of the PRA exercise, and an action plan based on the findings.
This book evaluates the impact of a sample of NGOs on poverty in rural South India. It provides an overview of the Government of India's poverty alleviation programmes, and discusses the role of NGOs. Four case studies are presented of the Rural Development Trust Community Organisation Programme (credit funds), the Church's Auxiliary Programme for Social Action (village organization and planning for self-reliance), the Kanyakumari District Fishermen Sangams Federation (marketing cooperatives), and the Arthik Samata Mandal Agricultural Development Programmes (credit, land levelling and irrigation). Each case study is examined with respect to its context, history and structure, impact in terms of realisation of objectives, economic and social impact, distribution of benefits, external influences, cost-effectiveness, sustainability and potential for replication. Strengths, weaknesses and lessons from each case are discussed, The concluding section summarizes the case studies in terms of reaching the poorest, types of benefits, innovation and flexibility, costs and reasons for success. Each case study contains discussion of methods and extents of participation, and the conclusions consider the impact on the poorest.
This report is an up-to-date account of an innovative and experimental participatory development programme, called Change Agents Programme (CAP)which was initiated in the late seventies in Sri Lanka. The programme's main objective was to train village level development cadres called 'change agents' with a view to working among the rural poor and setting in motion a process of awareness building for self-reliant participatory development. The programme characteristics and CAP intervention process and strategy are described at great length. The report also presents the organisation of the programme which though staffes by the government ministry, is least affected by normal bureaucratic practices. Some important issues and considerations for the further expansion of CAP into a national level anti-poverty programme are discussed.
Rapid Reconnaissance Guidelines for Agricultural Marketing and Food System Research in Developing Countries
These RRA guidelines are organised in two sections. The first part examines the substance of RRA in agricultural marketing research: the main characteristics of RRA in food systems research, and some basic alternative approaches (Ch. 2), analytical frameworks for the study of commodity marketing systems (Ch. 3), key areas of investigation of commodity subsectors (Ch. 4), analysis of prices and marketing margins (Ch. 5), proxy variables and key indicators (Ch. 6), and non-market, institutional and non-economic factors in food systems (Ch. 7). The second section discusses the process of RRA (Chs. 8 and 9), including sections on preparation for fieldwork (Ch. 8) and implementation of RRA surveys (Ch. 9). Report preparation, presentation and follow up are the subject of Ch. 10, and some limitations of RRA are addressed in Ch. 11. This paper is aimed at agricultural economists, and much of the information assumes possession of specialist knowledge.
This is the report of a study designed to reach some broad conclusions about social, economic and cultural change in rural and peri-urban communities of mainland Tanzania. It draws on previous accounts and on group interviews and other RRA methods. Substantive findings concern the responses of members of rural communities to the process of economic liberalisation and their reception of constitutional reforms leading to the adoption of a multi-party political system. Regarding methodology, the study confirmed the value of combining existing literature with fresh fieldwork, although problems of generating generalisable conclusions from location-specific material are acknowledged. Focus-groups were found to be particularly useful, when combined with the possibility of drawing on the long-term field experience of researchers.
Farming Systems Research has focused on the generation of new technologies to improve production systems. New technologies often result in new products produced by farmers. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effect of change in production on the market for the product, and market potential before a product is promoted. Market assessments are not often done, partly due to a lack of information on marketing. This paper argues that rapid market assessment (RMA) is a quick and cheap means of assessing market potential at early stages of a project. The methodology of RMA, drawing on RRA is outlined. It consists of (i) locating areas where the product is currently marketed; (ii) generating a qualitative description of the market structure through informal interviews at each level of the marketing system; (iii) choosing a level of the system for detailed study; (iv) interviewing market participants to assess market potential. Finally an evaluation of market potential is made based on the quantity which could be produced and the net price to producers. A detailed example is given of its application to the market for goat cheese in Brazil.
This report presents the results of a rapid market appraisal (RMA) of the market for yellow corn in the Bicol region of The Philippines. The systems approach and RMA methods used in the research are discussed n the introduction. The RMA identifies: Who are the marketing participants in this commodity system? How and why is the system organised and operating as it is? What are the constraints on corn production, given strong local demand? In describing this system, the report discusses the technical characteristics of the crop and commodity; demand patterns, marketing system organisation and spatial network; marketing system operation; economics of marketing; infrastructure and institutions and power.
This report is a review of the different participatory methodologies used in development throughout Africa. It includes overviews of the literature on participatory development, and participation in agriculture and natural resource management, forestry, health, credit, literacy, water, and urban programming. Numerous methodologies are outlined (e.g. animation rurale, auto-evaluation, GRAAP, Theatre for Development, RRA etc.). ACORD's experience with participatory methodologies in Burkina Faso, Mali, Uganda and Sudan are discussed in detail. There are annotated bibliographies on ACORD and key general publications relating to participatory methodologies, and lists of key institutions.
Participatory Research for Rural Development in Zimbabwe: A Report of a Training Workshop for ENDA-Zimbabwe Trees Project
This training workshop in Zimbabwe was attended by staff of a community management of woodland project. These included village based researchers (VBRs) and community workers (CWs), who it was intended would gain experience of participatory research techniques for use in community planning and project evaluation by communities involved. The report outlines the woodland project, the roles of (VBRs) and (CWs) in decision making about tree resource management, and discusses issues of community acceptance of local research, and information biases in previous research activities. The remainder of the report discusses activities to equip CWs and VBRs with methods that allow rapid assessment and analysis and to strengthen community feedback. These activities included discussion of aerial photographs, transects, seasonal analysis, marketing analysis, preference ranking, and methods for stimulating discussion in group meetings for community feedback, including stories, drama, pictures, songs, dances etc.
Mid-term Review of the Implementation of Policy Recommendations Regarding Key Agricultural Inputs During 1988-89 to 1990-91 Period
This is a report based on studies using RRA methods, the aim of which was to assess the implementation of agricultural policies in Bangladesh and to establish a benchmark for future impact analyses. It presents analysis of trends in the delivery and use of key agricultural inputs (fertiliser, seeds, irrigation, pesticides, credit and extension service). Major constraints are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are made. Six local studies are presented in an appendix.
Farmers' Needs for Management, Research and Extension, and Policy - Findings of a Farmers' Workshop and their Implications
This paper reports the findings of a workshop attended by farmers in New Zealand. Farmers' objectives, their circumstances and the constraints they face are central to any consideration of ways of improving farming systems. The management, research and extension, and policy needs of the farmers attending this workshop were diverse. This diversity was linked to the degree of diversity in business objectives and management structures on their farms. More research on these issues across a spectrum of farmers is required to ensure that research and technology transfer meet their needs. Most of the discussion relates to wool and meat products.