This article draws on literature from both monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and organisational learning to explore synergies between these two fields in support of organisational performance. Two insights from the organisational learning literature are that organisations learn through ‘double-loop’ learning: reflecting on experience and using this to question critically underlying assumptions; and that power relations within an organisation will influence what and whose learning is valued and shared. This article identifies four incentives that can help link M&E with organisational learning: the incentive to learn why; the incentive to learn from below; the incentive to learn collaboratively; and the incentive to take risks. Two key elements are required to support these incentives: (1) establishing and promoting an ‘evaluative culture’ within an organisation; and (2) having accountability relationships where value is placed on learning ‘why’, as well as on learning from mistakes, which requires trust.
Action research report on REFLECT : Regenerated Freirean Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques : the experiences of three REFLECT pilot projects in Uganda, Bangladesh and El Salvador
This document is an ACTIONAID report on the two-year REFLECT program that was piloted in villages in Bangladesh, El Salvador, and Uganda. The REFLECT program is founded on the principles of Paulo Freire's philosophy of conscientisation and was aimed to promote active dialogue and empowerment among the participants. The report discusses the theoretical roots of the program, the methods that were used with REFLECT, and evaluations of the various projects in the previously mentioned countries.
This guide has been written for members of NGOs who are active in community-based work among pastoralists. The guide's purpose is to describe a simple method that can help to understand how indigenous people classify and use their local environment. The author's definition of local environment includes any activity or project that has had an impact on the community, therefore this method can also be used to understand how local people evaluate development projects that have affected them.
This is a longer version of the paper by Lily in Koning (ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Participatory Research in Health Promotion (1994). The paper outlines the background to the evolving Women's Development Project (WDP) in Bangladesh. It focuses on a health education component of the project, and gives an example of community mapping in a Bangladeshi village, conducted with village-based volunteer health educators (VHEs). The process of the exercise is reported, as are the reactions of the VHEs. The mapping exercise led to a discussion of the achievements and challenges faced, illustrating the potential role of mapping in enabling women to look at their own work in a new way. Other potential uses of PRA in the WDP are listed.
The authors explore the use of Web 2.0 tools for development and introduce readers to the concept of Web2forDev. Web 2.0 tools are radically changing the ways we create, share, collaborate and publish digital information through the Internet. Participatory Web 2.0 for development (Web2forDev for short) is a way of employing web services to intentionally improve information-sharing and on-line collaboration for development. It presents us with new opportunities for change - as well as challenges - that we need to better understand and grasp. The authors consider learning and reflections from practice and consider ways forward.
This draft report gives account of the Save the Children (UK) work on child protection 2001-2002, in the Kotkai afghan refugee camp, Pakistan. The work is described in three phases. In the first phase conventional methods of child protection monitoring were adopted, where outsiders were used. In the second phase a participatory monitoring strategy was introduced, using some PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) tools to collect information on the topics given in phase one. In the third phase (from April 2002 and onwards) the participatory Reflect-Action approach was used to monitor the child protection issues. The methodology was used to monitor child protection concerns, and childrenÆs taking a leading role in advocating the protection concerns speeded up the response. The service delivery agencies took immediate actions in almost every concern raised by the children. Lessons learned from the approach are highlighted. Impacts of the Reflect-action approach are detailed in the context of empowerment, change in social behaviour, and capacity building. The processes of the different Reflect-Action circles (focussing around education system, children under stress, school drop outs, disease, water shortage, needs, drug addiction, shelter, and early marriages) are described briefly in separate sections specifying diagrams used for visualisation, e.g. sketches, cause and effect charts, pair-wise ranking, maps, and matrix ranking charts. The implications of scaling up child protection monitoring are discussed and a future strategy for child protection in Pakistan is presented. Three annexes are included which detail the issues identified through the three phases of the project. A brief note describing PRA is also incorporated.
The author explores the lessons learnt from the information communication technologies for development (ICT4D) paradigm shift to Web2forDev. ICT4D helped to mainstream ICTs in to development thinking and highlight issues of access and connectivity in the developing world. Whilst ICT4D was mostly driven by technology hype and a narrow approach to how we use the tools, Web 2.00 has a stronger focus on social and decentralised networking. However, key issues remain: access, connectivity, capacity-building, literacy and language. The author argues the need to holistically appropriate, adapt and integrate these technologies in our work.
This article suggests some steps in the theorization and assessment required to improve and understand the logical framework approach towards learning oriented development evaluation. It addresses the following questions: how should one proceed in assessing a planning and evaluation approach; when and how should an LFA be used; should it look at best normal or worst practice; what should be made of a tool which regularly requires the defences that it needs intelligent and careful use and that its failings are contingent, not inherent; what assumptions can be made about the skills and motivation of the average user? what comparisons can be made with alternative approaches? In conclusion the paper states that LFA should be used with care and sometimes not at all. This approach can usefully encourage thinking about purposes, assumptions and data, but become less helpful as we move from planning to monitoring to evaluation.