''NKASIRI'': Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning Techniques: Workshop proceedings, Maralal, Kenya, 1996
This paper documents a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on PRA and participatory planning. The introduction to the workshop raised issues like what participatory development actually entails in practice, and introduced the '' ladder of participation'' i.e. different degrees of participation. The trainees were divided into four teams and introduced to a range of PRA tools, with a list of do's and dontÆs. Community action plans were introduced. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and their implications for workshop participants and communities. The annexes include a discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and workshop participantsÆ evaluation comments.
The Living Earth Foundation is an international NGO that works with people to resolve environmental issues of concern to them. This article describes their people-centred approach of raising awareness in a way that does not rely on one way communication media, and focuses on the principle that people will learn from those they know and trust. The Foundation's work, using this approach with the Rufiji Environmental Management Project in Tanzania, is described, including the role of volunteer listeners and the process of establishing the programme. It goes on to look at the next steps that need to be taken and at lessons learned, and concludes that this programme represents a point where environmental education and stakeholder dialogue converge.
This article examines preparations that a trainer / facilitator should consider before initiating a training session. It provides training materials for participatory learning and outlines how to plan and schedule a training session. It mentions the need for a trainer to identify objectives of the training, which can be measured or evaluated. The article provides a checklist of a range of aspects of training preparation.
This article draws on literature from both monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and organisational learning to explore synergies between these two fields in support of organisational performance. Two insights from the organisational learning literature are that organisations learn through ‘double-loop’ learning: reflecting on experience and using this to question critically underlying assumptions; and that power relations within an organisation will influence what and whose learning is valued and shared. This article identifies four incentives that can help link M&E with organisational learning: the incentive to learn why; the incentive to learn from below; the incentive to learn collaboratively; and the incentive to take risks. Two key elements are required to support these incentives: (1) establishing and promoting an ‘evaluative culture’ within an organisation; and (2) having accountability relationships where value is placed on learning ‘why’, as well as on learning from mistakes, which requires trust.
This report examines poverty in relation to community forestry and dairy development. The initial section discusses the background to the study and the methods used. The emphasis is on PRA, with checklists developed and lists of tools identified. The four different communities are described, and although the subsequent analysis is sectoral, the differences between the four communities are highlighted. There are numerous case studies interspersed in the text. Forestry and Dairy are two areas where there have been many active interventions in the past, and the aim of the study was to give people a voice in what they felt about these interventions. These subjects are therefore dealt with in great detail, including an analysis of recent changes related to the projects. Issues around education, democracy and gender are also explored in depth. The final section outlines proposed new indicators of poverty which the researchers feel to be more appropriate, and recommendations for the future measurement of poverty alleviating interventions.
Action research report on REFLECT : Regenerated Freirean Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques : the experiences of three REFLECT pilot projects in Uganda, Bangladesh and El Salvador
This document is an ACTIONAID report on the two-year REFLECT program that was piloted in villages in Bangladesh, El Salvador, and Uganda. The REFLECT program is founded on the principles of Paulo Freire's philosophy of conscientisation and was aimed to promote active dialogue and empowerment among the participants. The report discusses the theoretical roots of the program, the methods that were used with REFLECT, and evaluations of the various projects in the previously mentioned countries.