Collaborative/cooperative inquiry (CI) is both a method for engaging in new pardigm human inquiry and a strategy for facilitating adult learning. Adult educators who use CI institutional settings must be aware of potential corrupting influences. The authors alert educators to three factors interjected by institutional affiliation that challenge the integrity of the CI process: financial support, power inequities and reporting requirements. These factors are examined in three different contexts: inquiries used for dissertation research, inquiries in the workplace conducted for proessional development, and multiple inquiry projects sponsored by an instituion to serve its mission.
''NKASIRI'': Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning Techniques: Workshop proceedings, Maralal, Kenya, 1996
This paper documents a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on PRA and participatory planning. The introduction to the workshop raised issues like what participatory development actually entails in practice, and introduced the '' ladder of participation'' i.e. different degrees of participation. The trainees were divided into four teams and introduced to a range of PRA tools, with a list of do's and dontÆs. Community action plans were introduced. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and their implications for workshop participants and communities. The annexes include a discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and workshop participantsÆ evaluation comments.
This article describes the use Forum and Invisible Theatre to educate members of the public, living near to Campsfield detention centre in Oxford, about forced migration and claiming asylum, in the hopes that it would lead to action by the audience.
Naming the Moment is a participatory method of identifying and analysing issues in order to decide how to act on them. It began in 1986 and is based on popular education techniques, particularly those of Paulo Friere. It has spread and adapted to local circumstances and has been used for community analysis, coalition building, anti-racist change, organisational development and strategic planning. This article looks at the dimensions of the approach, the four interlocking phases that make it up and goes on to give some examples of it's use.
The Living Earth Foundation is an international NGO that works with people to resolve environmental issues of concern to them. This article describes their people-centred approach of raising awareness in a way that does not rely on one way communication media, and focuses on the principle that people will learn from those they know and trust. The Foundation's work, using this approach with the Rufiji Environmental Management Project in Tanzania, is described, including the role of volunteer listeners and the process of establishing the programme. It goes on to look at the next steps that need to be taken and at lessons learned, and concludes that this programme represents a point where environmental education and stakeholder dialogue converge.
'When you are ill you always hope': an exploration of the role of traditional healers in HIV/AIDS care and prevention in Cambodia
This study aims to provide some insight into the work of traditional healers in Cambodia, focussing on HIV/AIDS/STIs and related conditions in the context of their wider role. The study was conducted over two months in Phnom Penh and Battambang. It provides an overview of who traditional healers are, the services they provide, how traditional healers and others perceive their role in HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and existing links and associations between traditional healers and others. The main findings of the study are as follows:
" Traditional healers are a very diverse group without a single identity.
" They were reported to treat almost all illnesses, with some healers specialising in treating people with HIV.
" AIDS, STIs and TB are treated with traditional medicine, with magic and ritual sometimes a component of this.
" Clients of the healers are perceived to be poor or of medium needs.
" Many people with HIV who are using traditional medicine reported substantial improvements in their health, though the side-effects and unknown toxicities are of serious concern of health workers.
" Many biomedical practitioners and health workers stated that they do not believe that traditional medicine is effective.
The bulletin starts with an introductory article on the evolution of REFLECT (Regenerated Freirean Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques), which combines the Freirean approach to literacy with PRA. The teaching methods used in what is called a REFLECT circle (class) are described. Based on the result of the pilot projects, the article claims that REFLECT approach has been proved successful and cost-effective in teaching people to read and write and in enabling people to link literacy with wider developmental issues. Reports from the REFLECT pilots, country case study of El Salvador and Uganda, and adapting REFLECT to the urban context are included The expansion of REFLECT programme into new areas and the future of the programme is discussed. All the articles are translated into Spanish alongside the English.
This brochure describes the participatory methodology used by Helvetas, the Swiss Association for International Cooperation, which intends to help improve the quality of education and training. It introduces and describes the basic principles and approaches of curriculum development and the learning process, and presents a case study of the Social Forestry Support Programme in Vietnam. Other Helvetas experiences are also presented, from Sri Lanka, Nepal, Lesotho, Kyrgyzstan, and Bhutan. With regard to the financial costs of the approach, it is seen as too expensive, though the approach is a long term investment. A number of benefits are evident:| As it is an innovative process it raises the prestige of institutions and individuals involved;| As prestige rises and experience grows, attitudes change in terms of greater willingness to listen, communicate and learn;| It promotes the development of transferable skills, peer learning, building of relationships, and of mutual trust and support.|Constraints to the programme are related to time and resources, bringing stakeholders together and trying to establish a common agenda among them, different groups lead to different levels of involvement. Finally, factors which facilitate the approach are:| Innovation should be key to the process;| The principle of participation means the development of partnerships and networks, in which experiences and knowledge can be shared;| Awareness of the fact that it is a time-consuming and continuous process;| Understanding of what motivates different stakeholders.
This article examines preparations that a trainer / facilitator should consider before initiating a training session. It provides training materials for participatory learning and outlines how to plan and schedule a training session. It mentions the need for a trainer to identify objectives of the training, which can be measured or evaluated. The article provides a checklist of a range of aspects of training preparation.
Participatory approaches are widely used to encourage group members to become involved in processes. Activities such as drawing, role play and small group work can be particularly useful in HIV/AIDS work when exploring sensitive issues such as sexual experiences, vulnerability and risk. This guide is designed to be an ôideas bookö of shared experiences to help facilitators prepare for participatory workshops, meetings and planning activities with NGOs and CBOs responding to HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Drawing on the practical experiences of the Alliance and its partners, it is packed with effective ideas such as drawing community maps and active listening exercises
A guide to learning agroforestry: a framework for developing agroforestry curricula in Southeast Asia
This guidebook, produced by the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) and the Southeast Asian Network for Agroforestry Education (SEANAFE), aims to provide the foundation for guiding agroforestry learning in Southeast Asia. It is meant to serve as a tool for educational institutions to address the rapidly changing area of integrated natural resource management.
The guide is the result of a collaborative process where members of SEANAFE have drawn on their experiences from agroforestry education and curriculum development as well as agroforestry research and development. It is oriented towards the following:
À Providing a general guide about the curriculum development process
À Presenting an overview of the contents that should be in focus in agroforestry education
À Emphasising that practical exercises are essential for attaining agroforestry education objectives
The guide is divided into two parts, the first of which focuses on participatory curriculum development and teaching methods. The second part develops a framework for agroforestry curricula. This includes a look at concepts and principles, at systems, practices and technologies, at institutions and policies related to agroforestry and lastly at advancing agroforestry practices. Since this guide is generic, further elaboration and local adaptation is needed regarding contents and especially regarding the practical exercises. It should be complemented with local information and materials.