This paper is on how adults may learn without outsiders setting the agenda. Influenced by Paolo Friere, it advocates that the process of learning in adult education is a continuous process of reflection and action. The paper illustrates that this idea of Friere is being applied by development agencies in their projects and programmes, even by Christian evangelists in learning more about the gospel. Reflection and action connotes participation and so the paper cites three examples of participation, one of which must be avoided. For the third, the paper recommends the idea of allowing the people themselves to come out with a local agenda. In conclusion, it suggests that an agency working with adult education should not be afraid to let the people explore their own agenda and the agency should play the role of a servant, and not a master.
A formal "FAO-type land evaluation" had been carried out by Southern Highlands Rural Development project in Papua New Guinea. The objective was next to "identify the social overlay" on this physical inventory - ie "who governs who has access to what land". The team of three used aerial photographs as one of several RRA tools. The photographs were used as aids for mapping clan boundaries and as a focus for discussion in interviews, proving an immediate way "for both interviewees and interviewers to use as a reference in distinguishing between land types".
Aerial photographs were used as the focus for discussions about land use practices in an area of Kenya. Details are given of how the photographs were taken. The photographs helped to reduce spatial biases, such as the tendency for field workers to walk along the contours and along ridges. They also seemed to "confirm what made sense intuitively" in terms of land use options. During household interviews, people seemed happy interpreting the photographs though they were mostly literate and had seen aerial photographs before.
In spite of children and young people being involved in many aspects of community life, social policy in the UK often neglects their interests. This book argues that contrary to conventional adult wisdom children and young people are competent to take part in collective decision making and that it is essential that they do so. Practical examples from Save the Children's work are provided to show ways in which children and young people can be encouraged to participate and have a real say in how things are done.
This paper reflects on whether because of the very concept and nature of a manual, the REFLECT Mother Manual is in direct contradiction with the very approach which it is introducing.
Brief explanatory note on the concept of Participatory Action Development (PAD), its epistemological origins, its use in the field and its relevance to the community water management programme managed by the International Water and Sanitation Centre. The authors also discuss the uses for a PAD approach and draw out the ways it can be implemented in the different phases of projects.
This report is of an RRA training workshop which was carried out in one of the pilot sites of the Bhutan-German Integrated Forest Management Project in Wangdi District, Bhutan, in 1995. The first part of the report outlines the purpose and approach of the different methods, and how they were used in the field. They included mapping, transects, semi-structured interviewing and focus group interviews, seasonal calendars, tree ranking, institutional diagramming, wealth/well-being ranking, 'vision-drawing' by children, and problem ranking. The results were then presented at a feedback meeting with municipality representatives. The second part of the report presents the findings of the RRA.
The authors discuss the importance of intellectual property rights when using Web 2.0 tools for development. They describe a project working with Canadian communities to revitalise their language. Using a range of tools and approaches including participatory video, the project also developed a series of short language-learning videos which were uploaded to video-sharing websites. However, not all the material generated was made available online. The participants strictly limited how much of their valuable cultural knowledge was made public, retaining much of it within their own communities.