This article is the last in a series of four. Each looks at one step in the evaluation and planning process: description, investigation, analysis and decision (see Kenyon 1983). Participation in all steps is the ideal. This paper looks at decision. Three sections look at decisions about changes to address needs or problems; strategy decisions and deciding among alternative strategies; and evaluation decisions, or the measurement of results against objectives. Examples are drawn from projects in a number of countries, illustrating processes of community participation in decision making and the use of visual representations in assisting the making of decisions.
This is the second of a series of articles by World Vision International. It begins with the description of how a community deepen their understanding of their situation by using participatory mapping technique. The first part of the report is on Participatory process, community evaluation and planning , and the recognition of basic participatory principles that must be acknowledged in people and key characteristics of a good facilitator. It further describes a world vision exercise on participatory planning where match boxes were used to represent households in Brazil. In this exercise different kinds and lengths on match sticks were used to identify the various categories of people in the community. This enabled the community to identify the number of children of school going age in the community and then followed on to develop educational and nutritional programmes . It has a Christian theme, and draws on parallels between the work of Christ and Participatory processes. The report includes photocopied photos of the maps and the key of match sticks for the census of the community.
Unlike the conventional methods of information collection in which outsiders are the immediate major gainers, this brief note describes how PRA can reverse this tradition and enable the villagers to gain from information sharing. Two examples from India - Panahpur, Utter Pradesh and ActionAid Karnataka - have been presented. Local people were used as PRA trainers (after receiving trainers' training from outside experts) and the informal village organisations took the responsibility of organising PRA training for outsiders. The income earned (through fees collected from the participants of the training) was utilised in local development projects.
Women facilitating action learning : a critical discourse analysis of their reflections : a summary.
Report of a study focussing on the facilitator's role in action learning which is based on the authors experience as a woman facilitating an action learning 'set' within an organisation.
This booklet describes the genesis, progress and evaluation of five women's participation projects that took place in Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Zambia and Uganda between 1996 and 1999. These projects were organised by the Active Learning Centre (a Scottish-based development organisation that works for peoples' rights through education and training) and local NGOs. The overall aim of the booklet is to identify lessons learned and good practice in developing women's participation. The first section argues that the wider dimensions of poverty encapsulated in the concept of social exclusion are useful to understanding women's poverty and the underlying social relations that contribute to women's deprivation. A contrast is drawn between a gender and rights approach to tackling women's poverty, highlighting their respective useful aspects. The use of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) as the key document for the training of trainers and local community education activities is described. The second section presents an overview of women's legal rights within the project countries and highlights some of the main areas of discrimination. It includes examples of reforms seeking to provide greater equality for women. The next section focuses on the development and execution of the women's participation projects, describing their models of operation and organisation, and providing examples of group work activities. It concludes with a series of seven case studies illustrating different aspects of the work of the projects and some of the lessons learned. The fourth section provides examples of the systems used for monitoring and evaluating each stage of the project. The final section reflects on lessons learned, identifying good practices in women's participation projects.
This paper is part of the broader series of publications about ælessons for change that look at learning and change in development organisations. Overall the series poses arguments for the importance of reflection on relationships and power in the aid context, document practical experiences of facilitating innovative learning, and stress the need for cultural and procedural change to foster a climate of inquiry and responsiveness. This paper in particular describes the authors' experience of testing and implementing alternative approaches to monitoring and evaluation, and to evaluate institutional relationships. It summarises DFID-Brazil's experience of discussing and defining concepts and principles for working in partnerships. It also reflects on the learning and change that has been stimulated by these discussions in DFID-Brazil, and proposes some lessons for DFID and donor agencies in general about relationships.
This study is part of a global research effort entitled Consultations with the Poor, designed to inform the World Development Report 2000/1 on Poverty and Development. The research has used participatory methods to involve and give a voice to poor people in twenty-three countries around the world. This report is from Zambia, from sites selected to give a rural/urban balance. The study focuses on four main topics, each with a set of key themes, as follows:
- Exploring well-being: How do people define their quality of life, their ill-being or well-being? How have these changed over time? How do people perceive security, risk, vulnerability, opportunities, social exclusion and crime and conflict, and how have these perceptions changed over time? How do households and individuals cope with a decline in well being and how do these coping strategies affect their lives?
- Priorities of the poor: Listing of problems faced by different groups within the community and identifying problems faced by the poor. Prioritisation of problems, in terms of the most pressing needs of the different groups. Have these problems changed over time? What are people's hopes and fears for the future?
- Institutional analysis: Which institutions are important in people's lives? How do people rate these institutions? Do people feel that they have any control or influence over these institutions? Which institutions support people in coping with crisis?
- Gender relations: What are the existing gender relations within the household? What is women's relative position today as compared with the past, and to men? What are the existing gender relations within the community? Are there differences in gender relations among different groups within the community?