This manual is an effort to fill the gap on the subject of farmers' institution building for watershed management in India. Strong farmers' organisations are the foundation of successful watershed development programmes, as well as associated income generating activities that also ensure women's empowerment and sustainable resource use. Gaps in participatory integrated watershed management training for the Himalayas and rainfed areas have been identified, bought about by most training and extension institutions in this region being modelled on top down management approaches rather than people or farmer led programmes. Many traditional approaches to the sustainable use of land, water and forest resources have been lost. This manual aims to provide structured training in participatory integrated watershed management that will assist the farmers in organising themselves. The manual is modular and organised in two sections: the first provides an overview of initial activities essential to the process and the seconds deals with the effective functioning of the groups themselves.
This study is part of a global research effort entitled Consultations with the Poor, designed to inform the World Development Report 2000/1 on Poverty and Development. The research has used participatory methods to involve and give a voice to poor people in twenty-three countries around the world. This report is from Bulgaria, from sites selected to give a rural/urban balance. The study focuses on four main topics, each with a set of key themes, as follows: Exploring well-being À How do people define their quality of life, their ill-being or well-being? How have these changed over time? À How do people perceive security, risk, vulnerability, opportunities, social exclusion and crime and conflict, and how have these perceptions changed over time? À How do households and individuals cope with a decline in well being and how do these strategies affect their lives? Priorities of the poor À Listing of problems faced by different groups within the community and identifying problems faced by the poor. À Prioritisation of problems, in terms of the most pressing needs of the different groups. À Have these problems changed over time? What are people's hopes and fears for the future? Institutional analysis À Which institutions are important in people's lives? À How do people rate these institutions? À Do people feel that they have any control or influence over these institutions? À Which institutions support people in coping with crisis? Gender relations À What are the existing gender relations within the household? What is women's relative position today as compared with the past, and to men? À What are the existing gender relations within the community? À Are there differences in gender relations among different groups within the community?
Can action research be made more rigorous in a positivist sense? The contribution of an iterative approach
How can action research be made more rigorous? This paper discusses action research, positivism and some major criticisms of action research by positivists. It then examines issues relating the conduct of IS research in organisations through multiple iterations in the action research cycle proposed by Susman and Evered. It is argued that the progress through iterations allows the researcher to gradually broaden the research scope and in consequence add generality to the research findings. A brief illustrative case is provided with a study on groupware introduction in a large civil engineering company. In the light of this illustrative case it is contended that effective application of the iterative approach to action research has the potential to bring research rigour up closer to standards acceptable by positivists and yet preserve the elements that characterise action research as such.
This brief article explores what is really meant by capacity building and how it can be made effective through grassroots empowerment. The author examines social action as an organised set of action and socio-political process, explaining the concept of capacity building as social action. He looks at capacity building as social action based on an analytical approach seeking to integrate the ethical, political and pragmatic aspects of capacity building, based on values of human rights, socio-ecological justice and equitable social change. A spiral of empowerment illustrates the process of empowerment, moving from the self (experimental reflection) to social change, through capacity building. A conceptual framework for capacity building for empowerment is presented including the elements of perspective, information, skills and models/systems. The importance and processes of each of these elements are explored further looking at enhancing the perspective for social action; links between information, knowledge and power; and skills-modes of effectiveness and efficiency. These processes and links between them are explained with diagrams. Finally reflections are made on advocacy capacity building linked to social action, as a communicative act, and capacity building as social action through learning by doing.
This is a longer version of the paper by Lily in Koning (ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Participatory Research in Health Promotion (1994). The paper outlines the background to the evolving Women's Development Project (WDP) in Bangladesh. It focuses on a health education component of the project, and gives an example of community mapping in a Bangladeshi village, conducted with village-based volunteer health educators (VHEs). The process of the exercise is reported, as are the reactions of the VHEs. The mapping exercise led to a discussion of the achievements and challenges faced, illustrating the potential role of mapping in enabling women to look at their own work in a new way. Other potential uses of PRA in the WDP are listed.
The authors explore the use of Web 2.0 tools for development and introduce readers to the concept of Web2forDev. Web 2.0 tools are radically changing the ways we create, share, collaborate and publish digital information through the Internet. Participatory Web 2.0 for development (Web2forDev for short) is a way of employing web services to intentionally improve information-sharing and on-line collaboration for development. It presents us with new opportunities for change - as well as challenges - that we need to better understand and grasp. The authors consider learning and reflections from practice and consider ways forward.
Chap. 3 Educational change and issues of going to scale. Chap. 4 The child-to-child approach: evolving concept and its applications
Chapter 3 reviews literature on projects aiming at aducational change and the processes of their scaling up. After defining terms and examining the aims and process of educational change, the chapter looks at model from different projects in Indonesia and China. Chapter 4 reviews the development of the child-to-child approach, various degrees of children's participation and issues of going to scale.
This paper report a workshop of a child health programme in Honduras. Previous attempts to keep health diaries to record illness, and how illness was treated within families and communities had failed. Workshop participants were rural illiterate women. The aim of the workshop was to take a case history of children under five years and to record both illness and developmental milestones over the previous 12 months. The women were first asked to draw pictures to represent each month of the year. Below each picture they were asked to draw what happened to their child during that month. This was followed by a discussion to explain the drawings. The paper discusses some of the problems the women had in drawing these calendars, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the technique. One of the strengths is that the technique enables the women to explore patterns of illness and analyse them, drawing on the knowledge acquired by their participation in the programme.