Combining different knowledges: community-based climate change adaptation in small island developing states
An overview of the life and work of Paulo Freire. Some of the key concepts he developed that are significant to both PRA and REFLECT are outlined.
This pamphlet summarises the results of a study conducted by the National Development Service on Nepal and Unicef. Teams of data-collectors went to nine different parts of Nepal showing illiterate villagers a wide variety of pictures in various colours and shadings. The results showed that most of the visual aids used by the health service were not recognised or misinterpreted by local people. Suggestions are made as to how visuals might be improved in response to feedback from villagers.
A research project was conducted in nine different parts of Nepal to find out how non-literate adults responded to a variety of pictures and diagrams. Findings of the study included : villagers do not expect to receive ideas from pictures, villagers tend to 'read' pictures very literally and that villagers do not necessarily assume that thee is any connection between the pictures in a series. It was found however that 'if a picture's message is explained to villagers, they will probably remember the message when they see the picture again'. This even proved true in the case of an abstract diagram illustrating the transmission of TB. The study also compared the kind of illustrations that were most readily understood.
This book presents the role of communication in 8 case studies of natural resource management situations in developing countries. The case studies included are: Community based natural resource management in Namibia; Pastoralist communication in Kenya; Indigenous forest management in Cambodia; Recovering from conflict in Vietnam; Internet radio in Sri Lanka; Regional networking in Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Creating local organic markets in Turkey; Environmental education and Communication in El Salvador. It is designed as a learning tool and each case-study has specific learning objectives for the reader focussed around different aspects of communication in natural resource management. Questions are posed as every case-study develops serving as a base of discussion and inviting the reader to reflective thinking and drawing their own conclusions.
This book argues that in the development process, communication is everything. The authors present the case that communication for development is a creative and innovative way of thinking that can permeate the overall approach to any development initiative. They illustrate their argument with vivid case studies and tools for the reader, drawing on the stories of individual project leaders who have championed development for communication, and using a range of situations to show the different possibilites in various contexts. Free from jargon and keeping a close look at how development is actually being implemented at ground level, this book offers an important contribution to development studies for students, policy-makers and practitioners.
This book is about people and the processes needed to facilitate sharing of knowledge in order to achieve sustainable developmental change. It underlines that development communication is based on dialogue, which is necessary to promote people’s participation. It follows a two-way model and increasingly makes use of many-to-may forms of communication to facilitate the understanding of people’s perceptions, priorities and knowledge with its use of a number of tools, techniques, media and methods. It aims to give voice to those most affected by the development issue(s) at stake, allowing them to participate directly in defining and implementing solutions. Based on the assumption that authentic participation directly addresses power and its distribution in society, which often decreases the advantage of certain elite groups, the authors argue that structural and sustainable change necessitates the redistribution of power.
Community integrated pest management in Indonesia: institutionalising participation and people centred approaches
Integrated pest management (IPM) emerged in Indonesia in the late 1980s as a reaction to the environmental and social consequences of the Green Revolution model of agriculture. A cooperative programme between the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the Indonesian Government centred on Farmer Field Schools (FFS), which are schools without walls. The FFS aimed to make farmers experts in their own fields, enabling them to replace their reliance on external inputs, such as pesticides, with endogenous skills, knowledge and resources. Over time the emphasis of the programme shifted towards community organisation, community planning and management of IPM, and became known as Community IPM (CIPM). This study assesses the extent to which Community IPM has been institutionalised in Java (Indonesia). The dynamics of institutionalising people centred and participatory processes were found to be closely dependent on the following mutually reinforcing factors: 1. Enabling national policy decisions by the State were complemented by farmer led attempts to contest and shape policies from below; 2. Actors with emancipatory values, attitudes and behaviours championed the cause of FFS/CIPM; 3. Farmer centred learning and critical education promoted ecological knowledge for sustainability, both among farmers and those who work with them; 4. Enabling organisations that emphasise farmersÆ abilities, promote organisational learning and which are flexible in their structure and procedures; 5. The existence of safe spaces where farmers can get together, share problems and decide on action. Linking together these safe spaces and local groups into broader federations has helped farmers capture power back from centralised, top down agencies; 6. A context in which farmers have some control over funding decisions and allocations made by local, national or international funding bodies.
Community report: a participatory approach to assessing the impact of ICT access on quality of life in KwaZulu-Natal
This report is based on the experience and findings of a group of 113 people who took part in a two-year participatory research project. This was known as the Community-Based Learning, Information & Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Quality of Life (CLIQ) project. The aim of the project was to find out if ICTs can have an impact on people’s quality of life.
Participants came from four poorer communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Through their local telecentres, CLIQ provided free computer training and use and alongside this, participants discussed their quality of life and their life goals at different stages of the fieldwork. Some telecentres were not operating as well as others and some people were not able to participate as fully as others. The CLIQ research showed that when people use computers, they can improve their lives.
Training is important and should be linked to the needs of people who should be supported in their use of computers to help them reach their goals. For this to succeed it is essential that they have good access to computers that work.
The report is in memory of Nonhlanhla Gema.
Coping with cost recovery: a study of the social impact of and responses to cost recovery in basic services (health and education) in poor communities in Zambia
The report deals with the social implications of the cost-recovery measures adopted in the Zambian health and education sectors since 1989. The focus of the study is on the impact of the charges on access to basic health care and primary education among the poorest sections of the urban and rural population. The report is also concerned with the way poor communities, and the most vulnerable households within them, cope with demands to contribute more. It concludes by reviewing alternative ways of ensuring that the poorest are able to maintain access to basic services. A mix of approaches were used, including a range of standard RRA methods, focus-group work and anthropological insights from more traditional sources. The study also drew on a baseline survey and intensive household studies which had been carried out over several years.