Over a fourteen-month period, the author lived in two rural villages in south-central Bali and "tested the application of PRA tools with over 300 women and men (villagers to provincial government officials) to explore their gender roles, gender perceptions, gender relations and their Practical (PGN) and Strategic Gender Needs (SGN)". Government-designed programmes for women were also evaluated. Chapters 1 and 2 show how PRA has more in common with GAD (Gender And Development) than the WID (Women In Development) approach, since "they both focus upon relations of power". GAD and PRA are seen to be complementary approaches: GAD uses "extractive tools, with outsiders conducting interviews and participant observation" whilst PRA "has not addressed questions concerning exactly who within a community participates" and lacks tools to address conflict. Certain PRA tools do not enable women to express their particular perceptions and needs. Chapter 3 describes the research methodology in detail, analysing which PRA tools were successful in the field. Chapter 4 presents findings, showing that women have tended to become "implementers of government development initiatives, rather than participants in their own development". Conclusions (Ch 5) include evaluation of the research approach, listing the strengths and weaknesses of PRA and GAD in detail. Recommendations (Ch 6) suggest how PRA could be integrated into Gender Analysis training programmes.
This article is a case study of the author's participatory research with the Annette Lomond garment workers' co-operative in the North East of England. It discusses the relationship between the researcher and the participants, power imbalances, accountability, empowerment, effects of the research project, and presentation of findings. She concludes that the aim of uniting research with action and education is not always possible within one project. This alters the balance of the relationship and the nature of accountability.
The understanding of children's roles in the household, how work loads are shared and how they alter over time and with different socio-economic and environmental conditions is crucial for development. Gender issues are important, and an understanding of both gender and children should be built into projects and policy. Children's work has not often been considered in planning development initiatives. The first section provides a background to this before moving onto the background to the fieldwork conducted in Nepal and a description of the area. Environmental issues and their effects on children are illustrated using flow diagrams, maps and historical analysis. The role of children is highlighted in a framework of caste/ ethnicity, poverty and gender which affects control over resources and decisions. Different perceptions are examined using seasonal calenders, activity matrices and mobility diagrams. Throughout the study participatory methods were used, in addition to a basic questionnaire, and the methodology is highlighted in the appendix. The report concludes with six "steps forward", providing practical leads for policy and action. It is stressed that this report is not an end in itself but rather a first step towards development in which children are given a voice.
This book is a guide to a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods for research and practice. It examines the concept of participation and ethical considerations in fieldwork, and stresses methodological pluralism and dialogue in development planning. The main part of the book is devoted to participatory methods. It discusses techniques such as ranking and scoring, mapping and diagrams, and the use of indicators, focus groups and semi- structured interviews in poverty and gender analysis. Participatory monitoring and evaluation and sustainability analysis are also discussed.
Proceedings of the first Nepal Participatory Action Network Workshop, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 21 January, 1995
The first Nepal Participatory Action Network (NEPAN) workshop was held in January 1995 with the aim of providing a setting in which NEPAN institutional issues could be discussed and experiences of using PRA techniques shared. These proceedings cover the short presentations and discussion from the second day of the workshop. Four sessions focused on the following topics: issues in participatory approaches; constraints and problems encountered in using PRA techniques; training for PRA; and institutionalisation of PRA.
This report examines poverty in relation to community forestry and dairy development. The initial section discusses the background to the study and the methods used. The emphasis is on PRA, with checklists developed and lists of tools identified. The four different communities are described, and although the subsequent analysis is sectoral, the differences between the four communities are highlighted. There are numerous case studies interspersed in the text. Forestry and Dairy are two areas where there have been many active interventions in the past, and the aim of the study was to give people a voice in what they felt about these interventions. These subjects are therefore dealt with in great detail, including an analysis of recent changes related to the projects. Issues around education, democracy and gender are also explored in depth. The final section outlines proposed new indicators of poverty which the researchers feel to be more appropriate, and recommendations for the future measurement of poverty alleviating interventions.
The first of the two main sections to this report is a resume of the training programme and schedule. The main second section consists of a series of eight papers and annexes which are aimed at providing background theory to the subject of community development. The themes they cover are: peoples participation in rural development; community organisation - concepts and principles; women and rural development; community, change agents and their organisational strategies; formation, constitution and functioning of Mathar Sangams; initiating community action for development; panchayati Rai System; and participatory watershed management. This last focuses on a specific programme which used PRA to discuss issues relating to canals and identify a management committee who could take the process further.
This document is a detailed account of six poor women collected using a variety of PRA methods, viz., time lines, wealth mapping, pocket chart voting, seasonality diagrams among others. The nature, causes and the extent of poverty as perceived by these six poor women and the actions taken by them to cope with poverty are described at great length. The report makes more broad as well as specific policy recommendations to reduce poverty. The report includes annexes with tables and diagrams.
This is the report of a study designed to reach some broad conclusions about social, economic and cultural change in rural and peri-urban communities of mainland Tanzania. It draws on previous accounts and on group interviews and other RRA methods. Substantive findings concern the responses of members of rural communities to the process of economic liberalisation and their reception of constitutional reforms leading to the adoption of a multi-party political system. Regarding methodology, the study confirmed the value of combining existing literature with fresh fieldwork, although problems of generating generalisable conclusions from location-specific material are acknowledged. Focus-groups were found to be particularly useful, when combined with the possibility of drawing on the long-term field experience of researchers.
Implementing Village Resource Development Programmes Through Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning
This paper concerns PRA capacity building in the implementation and monitoring of the Village Development Programme of Kalam Integrated Development Project (KIDP) in northern Pakistan. It discusses the adoption and institutionalisation of PRA in village planning activities of the programme, which has involved the training of village extensionists to participate in PRA teams. The selection of these persons is discussed. Among the many comments on this innovative approach, the author notes that the pace of adoption has been appropriately slow given the experimental nature of this approach. Developing an understanding of PRA before any field work begins is important, particularly since it differs from conventional prescriptive interventions. Identification of initial activities, and the involvement of women are discussed. The need for caution in developing village action plans is noted, as is the importance of follow -up to PRA activities, particularly as expectations may have been raised. The need for monitoring structures and the possibility of future training are explored.
Robert Chambers Visit And Workshop Held In Gli: Peoples Participation In Watershed And Development Programmes.
This is an account at a workshop on the interaction between Robert Chambers, people from the watershed scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development of India and professionals in the field. The workshop focused on five broad themes: Issue pertaining to common property, Participation by women, contribution, watershed Association and the process of Participation. The report highlights the issues discussed under the themes and the suggestions arrived at by the participants. It focuses on management of common property resources, institutional problems, social, religious and political differences, attitudinal change and the process of participation.
This document addresses the World BankÆs approach to country poverty assessments. It looks at the increasing involvement of stakeholder groups, with the aim of building in-country capacity to address the problems of the poor. With examples from a number of countries, it argues that the participation of government and other institutional stakeholders in all aspects of the work increases sensitivity to poverty issues, enhances analytical skills, and builds allegiance to the measures proposed for poverty reduction. In addition it claims that, conventional statistical analysis is complimented by qualitative information from participatory social assessments, which reveal the concerns voiced by the poor.
This book describes a grassroots approach to empowering people for democratic social change. It explains participatory research using exemplarly case studies on community organizing, femist theory and ecological movements from a range of locations in North America. It challenges the relevance and validity of academic social science research.