This long and detailed study describes how the mandal (administrative area) of Devikere in Jagalar, Karnataka State was selected as the appropriate site for an Action Aid anti-poverty project. A socio-economic survey was conducted by a multi-disciplinary team using mainly RRA techniques. The methodology employed appears to have much in common with farming systems research. A section of the report is devoted to health issues. This includes: nutrition and food availability; mother and child wellbeing, health practices and beliefs; the environment; housing; occupation and health services. The anthropological/ethnographic technique of using case studies of individuals adds a strong human dimension to the study. Separate sections are devoted to women, infrastructure and sanitation, and socio-economic conditions.
Participatory development of a irrigation scheme: The Nyandusi Women Horticultural Scheme, Nyanza Province, Kenya
This paper presents an analysis of the Nyandusi horticultural scheme in Nyanza Province, Kenya. The focus is on how the women members, landowners and agency staff participated at crucial stages of the scheme's design and implementation. Key issues discussed: Lessons for future farmer participation in design and implementation of schemes by themselves; effect of farmer participation had on the final outcome of the scheme; the complexity of the the factors involved in such design.
A PRA exercise was carried out to analyse the positive and negative effects of drinking in a tribal area of India. Causal diagrams were produced of drinking habits and of women's status, showing the different consequences of birth of a female child as compared to a male child.
This paper describes a game and a story that were presented during the workshop to show how PRA can "help people to address and resolve conflict". The TASO game (described in the appendix) was used to illustrate current HIV transmission rates in Uganda. The story showed how PRA exercises conducted by Redd Barna in Zimbabwe brought out women's and men's different views of a proposed irrigation scheme. The potential for PRA to help resolve such conflicts is the emphasis placed on "the value of good communication skills". Development workers need to learn "facilitation and arbitration skills" in order to deal with, rather than "glossing over" conflict and "failing to acknowledge the political dimensions to all our interventions". Psychological stress (particularly in relation to HIV and AIDS) also needs to be recognised as "a valid development issue".
This book is meant to provide a variety of tools to development practitioners who are trying to implement gender sensitive projects in the water and sanitation sector. The tools will help with the process of gender analysis and with incorporating the findings of gender analysis into project design and implementation. It is intended for use by a variety of agencies, and so a variety of types of tools have been provided.
This book looks at the theoretical basis to participatory development work, drawing on related debates in anthropology, development studies and feminism. It attempts to connect theory and practice, presenting case studies of participatory research techniques from sites as far apart as development theatre in Mali and video-making with homeless people in the UK. It then extends the debate by questioning the shifts in power needed if institutions are to operate in a participatory manner.
In this article, the authors argue that women's involvement (despite initial resistance from the village males) in a participatory water project has had an impact on their role in the community in northern Pakistan. By recounting the history and context of the water project, the barriers faced, the process of participation and the final resolution to the water problem by the community, the authors discuss the wider issue of gender politics. They show how in choosing to go with the women's strategy for harnessing water, the role of gender in mediating access to and management of water becomes apparent and how larger shifts occur in terms of community participation in development.
Public canal irrigation systems suffer from many deficiencies - inefficiency, unreliable delivery of water, inequitable water distribution, neglect of maintenance causing deterioration of infrastructure, etc. Transferring irrigation management to water users' associations is considered essential for improving canal management. Those NGOs with a strong gender focus would like women to be brought into the mainstream of irrigation management by encouraging them to participate actively in the affairs of water users' associations. This paper seeks to examine such an approach, focussing on the interaction with women's groups in six villages in the Gujarat, India which had different sources of water for domestic use but one common feature - they were all served by a canal. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in these villages to ascertain women's priorities regarding water use. Two issues were examined: (1) how canals can better serve women's priority needs; (2) what women can do to improve the canal management and better functioning of water users' associations.