This chapter describes the efforts of and problems encountered by an NGO, Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP), India, in its attempts to integrate the concerns of men and women, while supporting local village institutions in managing their natural resources.
This IDS working paper is one of a series arising from the Pathways to Participation project which was initiated in Jan 1999 by the Participation Group, with the aim of taking stock of the first 10 years of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). There is a tendency to call any development practice that in some way involves local people 'participatory', and a huge diversity of meanings and practices can be hidden under this umbrella term. Additionally, the term 'participation' has become uncritically associated with 'empowerment'. Such oversimplified representations ignore the fact that participatory practice will vary greatly according to the context within which it operates. The paper analyses one particular approach to participatory development developed by SPEECH, an NGO working in Tamil Nadu, India, focusing specifically on gender relations. The paper draws on fieldwork from two communities - Kottam and Maniyampatti - in which SPEECH have been working for a lengthy period. The authors suggest that SPEECH's participatory practices are shaped by how both the staff and the local actors understand participation. As a result, the two communities have developed different participatory processes. The paper describes the notion that empowerment through participation is a relational and varied process occurring in spaces where people are able to interact according to an 'unusual' set of rules (i.e. during PRA workshops). The authors contend that such a process can have wider effects on social relations in everyday life, although, in this particular case study, certain aspects of gender relations have remained unchanged.
This report covers the main outcomes of a workshop held by Oxfam on its UK Poverty Programme's (UKPP) participatory appraisal (PA) approach. Two practices that are commonly used overseas by Oxfam have been applied to the UK: increasing the participation of people experiencing poverty in decision making processes; and increasing awareness of how poverty impacts differently on men and women. At the workshop there was much enthusiasm for PA due to its fun, different, inclusive, flexible, challenging, and empowering characteristics. This was also matched by concerns about PA and its use:
" that PA tools are becoming separate from the PA process;
" problems in establishing and maintaining standards and quality without compromising PA's ability to be flexible, complex and responsive;
" changing attitudes and beliefs of decision makers requires a major, long-term strategy, requiring time, resources and will on the part of participants;
" that PA is presented as a consultation tool and not as an empowering process.
The paper presents an overview of gender-related issues in Kenya, covering gender roles, income generation and management, decision-making etc. The analysis is very sensitive to gender relations shaping power relations both within and without the household. The author then, goes on to consider how World Neighbors has worked dealing with these sensitive issues, making reference to a number of examples, and finally mentioning the lessons learned.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately affecting and infecting women and girls who themselves face a host of cultural, social, economic and political factors that obstruct the realisation of their rights, further fostering their risk and vulnerability. This paper discusses two participatory learning and action methodologies that were used were used in a project working with Maasai communities in Northern Tanzania. Entitled æA Gender Issue: reducing the vulnerability of girls to HIV/AIDSÆ, it aimed to explore factors contributing to womensÆ and girlsÆ vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, facilitating discussions to create understanding in the community and identifying strategies to reduce risk and vulnerability. The majority of the paper is given over to the description of the gender matrix activity, describing itÆs six steps and how to adapt it for children. Drawing activities with children are also looked at and finally the author discusses the effectiveness of these methodologies.
This pack contains four documents drawing together the themes of gender and participation. It has also been translated into Arabic. The documents are as follows: (1) Gender and Participation - Overview Report (Supriya Akerkar) 31 pp. This report looks at convergences between approaches to gender and to participation, how these have been played out, and how they have been or could be constructively integrated into projects, programmes, policies and institutions. (2) Report Summary 4 pp (3) Gender and Participation - Support Resources Collection (Emma Bell and Paola Brambilla) 43 pp. This includes summaries of key resources, practical examples of approaches from around the world, examples of what tools used in participatory development can achieve and networking and contact details of relevant organisations. (4) Development and Gender In Brief - Gender and Participation (Issue 9)
A child centred approach to investigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on the family : a methodological study.
Report of research supported by Save the Children Fund (UK) that piloted research techniques, for use with children to understand the psychological, social and economic dimensions of the impact on them and their families of HIV/AIDS.
In order to obtain detailed information about project participants's daily tasks, particularly in a gender context, 139 calenders were constructed for one specific day. The timeline focused on all the activities undertaken during that day, including agricultural work. Men did more agricultural work than women, although women worked harder overall. Of the 103 agricultural workers surveyed, the men spent more time with livestock, both were involved in nursery work, and men carried out slightly more work in the fields. The other projects studied were water and santitation, women's income generating projects and education. The gender difference in perception of agricultural tasks is noted, which relates closely to time spent talking, resting and in 'reproductive' chores.
This handbook is based on the experiences of the CUSO-CCPD Training Programme for NGOs in Northern Ghana. However, examples are used to bring out the underlying principles which shaped the training process and generated participants' experiences. The emphasis of the book is strongly towards participatory approaches to development and training. Chapters 1 and 2 present the theoretical framework of the handbook - participatory training and the designing process of a participatory training programme. Subsequent chapters cover the basic concepts on gender in development, how gender analysis may be done, and the preparation of gender-oriented extensions programmes. The handbook is very clearly written and organised, making the concepts extremely accessible.
A PRA exercise was carried out to analyse the positive and negative effects of drinking in a tribal area of India. Causal diagrams were produced of drinking habits and of women's status, showing the different consequences of birth of a female child as compared to a male child.
In this article, the authors recount the development of an innovative monitoring tool for use by sex workers in a peer education programme. A brief history of the project in Nepal is given and the use of the tool - the 'mala' is described with an accompanying note on its impact.
This guide aims to enable activists, trainers and other involved in development and democracy to promote citizen participation and to democratize decision-making. Drawing on experiences of NGOs from numerous countries, the document contains concepts, tools and step-by-step processes aimed at promoting citizen advocacy. It aims to help activists, practitioners and planners to work with civil society in a way that promotes political change, develops solutions to development problems and policies, creates strong and lasting links and transforms power relations, including gender dynamics.