This is a midterm participatory evaluation report of a watershed programme in Tiruchirappalli, South India. The project used PRA techniques (integrated with other methods) in the planning and impact evaluation stages. The report includes a detailed background to the programme and quantitative findings. No detail is given on how the PRA activities were carried out as the emphasis is on the information collected, including case-studies on the impact on women's status.
Professionalism, participation and the public good : issues of arbitration in development management and the critique of the neo-populist approach
Conference paper argues that participation can leave decision making largely in the hands of middle class elements and not with the peasant mass. Participatory approaches also favour the internationalisation of authority, diluting standards of national accountability. The approaches are based on a hierarchy of values and attitudes and not on the promotion of a truly representative democracy.
This report discusses appropriate mechanisms for community involvement in different social, economic, and political contexts and identifies the corresponding requirements for training health personnel and strengthening communities. Participatory methods are suggested for training health workers. It is suggested that monitoring and evaluation involves a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques.
This manual on self-evaluation is aimed at helping those involved in running rural community development projects to learn how to do more effective and appropriate evaluations independently. The case study of a rural development project is used to illustrate why self evaluation can be useful, with a list of key reasons given. Using the same case study, the following chapter examines who stands to benefit as a result of this evaluation taking place. Examples of beneficiaries are listed as being; project staff, community members, members of the general public, amongst others. Logically, the next question asked is who should be responsible for carrying out the evaluation and a list of potential partners who may be involved is provided. The fourth chapter examines the different levels at which evaluation can take place i.e. at the preparation, implementation, sustainibility levels etc. Following from this, is a look at when to evaluate in relation to the different levels. The issue of what to evaluate was decided by considering the indicators that would be utilised to measure the different sectors of the project i.e. health, education etc. This process helps to demonstrate how difficult it is to measure intangible criteria that involve a description of 'human qualities' i.e. enthusiasm. A variety of PRA type techniques are suggested for the different sectors and this concludes with a discussion of how to communicate the findings. The paper as a whole concludes with a summary of the above mentioned questions, recommended resource materials on evaluation and an appendix that illustrates some of the issues raised in the document.
Discusses the methods of collecting information during a field-study carried out in Brazil, in the health district of Pau da Lima. It was intended to provide a learning experience for students as well as to explore the local potential for Primary Environmental Care (PEC) and to produce a number of recommendations to local bodies. Possible actors, conditions, means and resources to promote PEC within the Pau da Lima district were investigated. PEC integrates three components: empowering communities, protecting the environment, and meeting needs. The first step was a preliminary identification of present and future potential actors in PEC in the Pau da Lima district. A Rapid Appraisal (RA) was conducted in three squatter communities within the district, focusing on felt problems; interests and priorities in PEC; forms and conditions of community organisation; and instances and conditions of community-based action. Methods used include: review of secondary data, informal disucssions with informants, direct observations, laboratory analysis of water samples collected during the observation walks, life history interviews, focus groups and ranking exercises, semi-structured interviews. While the study found the RA methods useful, it suggested that they may not be sufficient to identify community-based solutions to specific problems. The techniques in "Making Microplans" (Goethert and Hamdi 1988) provide an example of how this action-oriented phase could proceed.
This article is a case study of the author's participatory research with the Annette Lomond garment workers' co-operative in the North East of England. It discusses the relationship between the researcher and the participants, power imbalances, accountability, empowerment, effects of the research project, and presentation of findings. She concludes that the aim of uniting research with action and education is not always possible within one project. This alters the balance of the relationship and the nature of accountability.
Mid-term Review of the Implementation of Policy Recommendations Regarding Key Agricultural Inputs During 1988-89 to 1990-91 Period
This is a report based on studies using RRA methods, the aim of which was to assess the implementation of agricultural policies in Bangladesh and to establish a benchmark for future impact analyses. It presents analysis of trends in the delivery and use of key agricultural inputs (fertiliser, seeds, irrigation, pesticides, credit and extension service). Major constraints are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are made. Six local studies are presented in an appendix.
This brief paper is a Technical Note paper (TN) which incorporates the experiences of the ODA and is supplemented by two other guides on similar issues. It starts by detailing definitions of stakeholder participation and describes the extent to which we can at present answer questions on when, why and how to encourage participation. The paper emphasises the importance of participatory approaches for the sustainable implementation of aid programmes and describes how key stakeholders can be identified. A series of steps are also listed to guide the level of participation that is feasible at different levels of the programme and in different sectors. Part two examines how participation can be enhanced in policy reform at the macro-level. The costs of such a move to donors are also highlighted. For projects that emphasise a process approach, it is recommended that local organisations are supported to enhance overall participation. Some methods of doing this are identified including PRA methods before the paper concludes with checklists.
A Field Methodology for Participatory Self- Evaluation of P.P.P. Group and Inter-Group Association Performance.
The introductory section of this brief paper discusses the importance of developing an evaluation methodology that is practical and flexible enough to be carried out by the community in the Peoples Participation Programme of the FAO. Uphoff reiterates that in fact the answers arrived at by the evaluation are in themselves not as important as what is learnt from the process of reaching consensus on such answers. An illustration of what the methodology utilised actually constituted is described in the first section of the paper. In the second section, however, the potential benefits of the methodology are discussed and these are categorised as being; i) that the process is self educative ii) the process is self improving iii) the process allows members of the programme to monitor progress and iv) it has the potential to improve training. Each of these potential benefits are discussed in some detail. The third section of the paper outlines a process for introducing the system in a rural setting in a number of steps. The last section, however, concludes by discussing a variety of issues related to the process of participatory self evaluation including problems of objectivity, comparability of numbers and use of appropriate language. Attached to the end of the document is an extensive section that includes an inventory of questions for group self evaluation and a list of questions for self evaluation. (Shorter version published in Community Development Journal Vol 26 No 4 )
The book explores the main issues and concerns of development professionals about adapting PRA from micro to macro organisations. It includes a checklist of practical considerations on training, taking projects from pilots and scaling up, changing institutional cultures and procedures and introducing participatory monitoring and evaluation.
A resource kit consisting of a video and manuals, providing information and experience on participatory methods in order to support the adoption of participatory approaches in World Bank projects and studies. The kit includes modules on social assessment, stakeholder analysis, PRA, SARAR and beneficiary assessment, and participatory monitoring and evaluation.
Reading pack for : Strengthening Participation in Local Governance : the Use of Participatory Research Methods
List of references on the role of participatory methods in improving citizen participation in local governance. Topics covered include: different types of participatory planning; techniques for participatory monitioring and evaluation of public institutions; methodologies for training representatives in effective performance; and state/citizen relationship-building via citizen education and awareness raising.
'Voices of the Poor' is a series of three books that collates the experiences, views and aspirations of over 60,000 poor women and men. This second book of the series draws material from a 23-country comparative study, which used open-ended participatory methods, bringing together the voices and realities of 20,000 poor women, men, youth and children. Despite very different political, social and economic contexts, there are striking similarities in poor people's experiences. The common underlying theme is one of powerlessness, which consists of multiple and interlocking dimensions of illbeing or poverty. The book starts by describing the origins of the study, the methodology and some of the challenges faced. This is followed by an exploration of the multidimensional nature of wellbeing and illbeing. Most of the book comprises the core findings - the 10 dimensions of powerlessness and illbeing that emerge from the study - and is organised around these themes. These include livelihoods and assets; the places where poor people live and work; the body and related to this, accessing health services; gender roles and gender relations within the household; social exclusion; insecurity and related fears and anxieties; the behaviour and character of institutions; and poor people's ratings of the most important institutions in their lives. These dimensions are brought together into a many-stranded web of powerlessness, which is compounded by the lack of capability, including lack of information, education, skills and confidence. The final chapter is a call to action and dwells on the challenge of change.