This training manual with a practical reference guide clearly presents the rationale for participatory project development and a step-by-step process for its use in training workshops. Workshop sessions are outlined in a sequence of stages in project development, viz., planning (understanding the community, needs assessment, determination of goals and objectives, assessment of resources and constraints, planning project activities), implementation and evaluation. The use of sample charts, checklists, and worksheets applied to different stages of project development make it easy for trainers to follow the reference guide. The manual emphasises community participation at all stages of project development.
This handbook discusses the basic definitions and principles of M&E, including where, why and how evaluation is carried out, and a detailed examination of what qualities are possessed by both good and bad indicators. There is an in-depth discussion of the functions of community based M&E and a list of 'ten steps' is provided to guide in developing and supporting a community based M&E system. Each steps is examined and illustrated with reference to a project in in India. There is also a list of do's and dontÆs in supporting a community based M&E system and a discussion of links that can exist between the M&E systems of an agency such as an NGO and that of a community based organisation. The paper concludes with a discussion of how M&E fits into the project cycle and the importance of fostering the right attitudes towards M&E practice is emphasised.
This document provides guidelines to be used as a reference for the implementation process of a proposed Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project in Uganda.
PRA is suggested as a key strategy to be used in the community planning and relevant techniques and training methods which can be used at each stage in the process are described. The guidelines also considrer the process of community mobilisation.
This paper explores literature related to the dynamics and methods of strengthening community-based participation in the context of programmes for democratic decentralisation. It specifically examines the merging of two distinct traditions of participation, social/project and political, and looks at the linking of development with the state, and a concept of governance that is accountable to civil society. In so doing, the authors demonstrate the emergence of a new definition of participation as citizenship, and contend that such new forms of citizen participation can best be seen at the local level, where ægrassrootsÆ interact with those of governance and the state. Barriers to citizen participation in local governance are discussed, such as: power relations; no previous history of grassroots/citizen organisations; weak or non-existent participatory skills; lack of will at both central and local government level; the level of participation; and the paucity of financial resources at local level. Ways in which these obstacles can be overcome are subsequently suggested, including participatory planning, citizen education and awareness building, and training and sensitising of local officials. The paper concludes with an illustration of a successful experience of citizen participation (participatory budgeting in Latin America), and a brief discussion of issues for further research.
Cette trousse à outils de la organisation Réseau Africain sur les Approches Participatives fournit une guide du formateur, un manuel du praticien et un boîte d'outils pour la formation de planification participative de villages, basée sur des expériences des approches participatives en niveau de village dans cinq pays de l’ Africains Ouest (Mali, Guinée, Côte d'Ivoire, au Bénin, et Burkina Faso) et au Madagascar. Le processus de la planification participative de village est expliqué point par point et illustré par des exemples de plusieurs études dans ces pays. Un ensemble de cartes (outils) définit les étapes successives dans le procédé de planification. Les contraintes et les conditions pour permettre une exécution nationale de l'approche dans le nouvel arrangement politique et social des pays africains, sont également traitées. Le manuel est orienté sur des praticiens, mais également vers les décisionnaires qui sont responsables de formuler des stratégies des services de développement rural et l’extension agricole. Il comporte trois parties. La première partie présente les objectifs et principes généraux de l’approche participative et traite de la démarche, y compris des outils à utiliser à chaque étape. Pour faciliter leur utilisation, les outils sont présentés de manière détaillée dans les fiches techniques qui accompagnent le manuel.
La deuxième partie traite des appuis nécessaires à la mise en oeuvre de cette approche ainsi que du rôle des différents participants dans ce processus. La troisième partie aborde la question des conditions d’application et les implications de l’approche participative, tant au niveau national que décentralisé et local.
This tool kit from the African network on Participatory Approaches provides a training manual and tool box for participatory village planning based on experiences with Village Level Participatory Approaches (VLPA) in five West-African countries (Mali, Guinea, C¶te d'Ivoire, Benin, and Burkina Faso) and Madagascar. The process of participatory village planning is explained step by step and illustrated by examples from several case studies in these countries. A set of cards (tools) spells out the successive steps in the planning process. Constraints and enabling conditions for a country-wide implementation of the approach in the new political and social setting of African countries are also dealt with. The manual is directed towards field practitioners, but also to policy makers who are responsible for formulating strategies of rural development and agricultural extension services. It comprises three parts. Part one presents the objectives and general principles of the participatory approach. It also discusses participatory methods and provides details on the steps and tools appropriate to each stage of the process. To facilitate their use, the tools are also presented in individual worksheets, which form part of this manual (the tool box). Part two describes the underlying conditions necessary for successful implementation of the participatory approach. It also discusses the roles of the various actors involved. Part three describes the conditions necessary for successful implementation of the participatory approach. It also describes what adoption of the approach means for organization of service delivery at the local, regional and national levels.
This folder, produced by the Jamaican Social Investment Fund, consists of seven short handbooks on CBOs . They are the result of observation of many Jamaican CBOs and they seek to address some of the common problems addressed by these organisations. These practical handbooks cover a number of topics: 1 The Community Based Organisation: looks at issues such as what a CBO is, how to get started, membership types, CBO structure, how to encourage new people, principles of evaluation and accountability, and registration. 2 Leadership and Motivation: here several issues are considered such as who the organisation belongs to, the constitution, job descriptions, meetings, how to stimulate creativity, building consensus and decision making, delegating and dealing with conflict. 3 Money Management and Fundraising: this handbook looks at the role of the Treasurer, the types of funds needed, different ways to raise funds, budgeting, accounting, financial reports, audit, credit and investment. 4 Planning Community Projects: various issues are considered such as developing a vision, identifying priorities, analysing the problem, analysing resources, analysing the past, analysing alternative solutions, analysing risk, planning activities and writing project proposals 5 Implementing Community Projects: this handbook takes the community project further by addressing implementation challenges, identifying beneficiaries, mobilising people to provide services, detailing the action plan, identifying the best time for implementation and monitoring of the project. 6 Evaluation of Community Projects: the issues around evaluating projects are looked at in this handbook and include questions such as why evaluate, who should evaluate, what should be evaluated and how should it be done. Evaluating people, planning and reporting are also addressed. 7 CBO Publicity and Networking; this last handbook looks at promoting the image the CBO through newsletters, press releases, presentations and by phone then goes on to consider communication in meetings, invitations and requests, and representation outside the community.
The Source from which rivers flow: organising for local governance, poverty reduction and development
This book is about how to strengthen communitiesÆ organising skills, confidence, creativity and relationships. It is designed for citizens and local leaders who are active in local development, but could also be useful to urban residents, councillors and agencies working with communities. It was produced through the community publishing process in Zimbabwe, and was enriched with ideas and examples from citizens and local leaders involved in a pilot programme in Gokwe North, Umzingwane and Maboto called Strengthening Citizen Participation in Local Governance. The book is based on participatory methods and provides question for the reader to reflect on. Although it can be read individually the bok is designed to be read by small groups in study circles, using methods described in the guide. The authors recommend it be used with two other books by ACPD (Africa Community Publishing and Development Trust) called Local Governance and Participation and Peace-building which have important chapters on communication and conflict resolution. The book is divided into ten sections focusing on teamwork; shared leadership; meeting for a purpose; research and writing; choosing priorities and analysing problems; decision making; planning; community participation in financial management; supervising, monitoring and evaluation; and co-ordination, negotiation and advocacy. The book also has a guide for facilitators giving tips on how to involve all participants in the group discussions. A very brief bibliography of associated literature is also included.
This guide is about using monitoring and evaluation (M&E) to improve the impact of IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development)-supported projects working with rural poverty alleviation and rural development. The focus is on a learning approach to M&E that uses achievements and problems for better decision-making and accountability. It requires creating an M&E system that helps primary stakeholders, implementing partners and project staff learn together in order to improve their development interventions on a continual basis. Because the ultimate objective is to ensure the maximum possible benefit for the rural poor, they are the ones best placed to assess project impact. The Guide suggests ideas for implementing this and other forms of participatory M&E. It includes the following set of booklets with sections going through the steps of M&E: introducing the M&E guide; using M&E to manage for impact; linking project design, annual planning and M&E; setting up the M&E system; deciding what to monitor and evaluate; gathering, managing and communicating information; putting in place the necessary capacities and conditions; and reflecting critically to improve action. The guide kit also includes five annexes with a glossary of M&E concepts and terms; an annotated example of a project logframe matrix and logframe explanation; an annotated example of an M&E matrix; methods for monitoring and evaluation; and sample job descriptions and terms of reference for key M&E tasks.
Budgets are the starting point of this book, and it continues with different types of revenue and taxes at the local level. Tax Justice is introduced and finally the book explains decentralization and the dilemma local government has in terms of limited independent space for planning and implementing plans. The book is designed for field workers and civil society organisations at the local level. Whilst the political context is very different in each country, it is hoped the book can inspire engagement in budget work at the local level. The book includes tools for analysing budgets and understanding political economy at the local level.
From Beneficiaries to Agents of Change: self-administrable tools to assess community preparedness for vulnerability reduction
This guide shows how self-administrable tools can be used to assess community mobilisation of any community-based organisation (CBO). The book can help CBOs assess their own performance, plan their future strategies and monitor themselves.