This publication documents Reflect experiences in two countries: Nigeria (where a range of projects are supported by ActionAid Nigeria) and South Africa (where a specific project is implemented by Idasa, the Institute for Democracy and South Africaùa national NGO which receives no funding from ActionAid). These experiences were chosen because of their focus on issues of rights and governance. Both experiences contain rich learning, targeting three main audiences: Reflect practitioners, ActionAid staff and partners, and other people engaging with grassroots activists in working to influence governance and rights issues at a national and local level. The report is structured into four main sections: an introduction looking at Reflect, governance, and connections between governance and rights; the Nigeria experiences; the South Africa experience; and a concluding section that looks at key issues in Reflect, rights and governance.
The National Association for NGOs (NANGO) in Zimbabwe has developed, with an external consultant, a method for participatory capacity assessment and planning. In this paper, the authors describe the process, emphasizing that capacity building is a much wider-ranging process than simply training or staff development. Following on from individual organisational processes, network members came together to see whether and how they could support and integrate their capacity building strategies. The article is thorough in its discussion with diagrams to illustrate key points. It concludes with reflections on the participatory capacity building methodology and future developments.
This paper surveys public participation policies across a range of international institutions and environmental agreements to better understand whether opportunities exist for meaningful participation in international decisions that affect the environment. It examines the implementation of Principle 10 in the Rio Declaration, supported by the Aarhus convention which details measures countries must take to ensure that citizens have access to information, participation, and justice in decisions that affect the environment. It looks specifically on how Multilateral Development Banks, Multilateral Environmental Agreements, and trade regimes and regional economic bodies have lived up to these goals. Co-produced by WRIÆs (World Resources Institute) International Financial Flows and the Environment Program (IFFE) and The Access Initiative (TAI), the survey concludes that: Policies on public participation are quickly becoming the norm; Public participation at the national level is uniformly weak; domestic stakeholders have limited ability to influence international decisions that affect their environment; Institutions and agreements subject to the greatest public scrutiny have the most advanced public participation policy frameworks; A common methodology is needed to assess the implementation and practice of public participation. This analysis provides the reader with an overview of where multilateral institutions are contributing to the development of effective public participation, and the extent to which opportunities exist in domestic and international political spheres for affected parties and the interested public to incorporate sustainability concerns in multilateral decision-making processes.
Guidelines on participatory development in Kenya: critical reflection on training, policy and scaling up
These guidelines are used to deepen the understanding and improve quality of participation. They clarify particular issues and challenges and set minimum standards that can be used innovatively and creatively by practitioners to achieve sustainable and equitable development. They are intended to be used to improve the practice of participatory development based on practitioners' own development contexts. The guidelines are an indication of the ideal situation on participation; this is therefore a living document which will constantly evolve in response to unique contexts in which different stakeholders use participation. They will feed into public policy and engage development partners, practitioners, private sector and communities into dialogue for promoting good practice and lessons on participation.
This article looks at government operated rice farming in Mbiabet in the state of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. Government operation of the Mbiabet Ikpe rice farm enabled expansion of the cultivable rice paddy, building of drainage systems, provision of silos and generators, improved infra-structure, and gave access to technical expertise. But it also generated massive fraud in allocating rice plots to farmers leading to conflicts and killings; inadequate maintenance of drainage systems; silos that remained unused and vandalised; and farmers refused to maintain their plots effectively as they could not keep it to the following year. In 1994 an Africa Development Bank (ADB) project funded a rice development survey in the area and a PRA (Participatory rural Appraisal) approach was applied with public meetings, workshops and action research involving the local community. The villages of Mbiabet were encouraged to set up Village Development Associations (VDAs) which were later coordinated in the Mbiabet Ikpe Community Development Association (MICDA). Within this network of organisations a framework was set up for participative identification of the main community problems their possible solutions. The MICDA then requested the handing over of the operability of the Mbiabet Ikpe rice farm and their proposal was accepted by the government. The authors conclude that the overtake of the rice farm has been successful and that the intensive nature of the facilitation where community members played active roles, coupled with long periods of engagement, which accorder people time to adjust to new challenges, contributed to the success of the programme.
This article looks at the issues of cost and sustainability of one of Save the Children's principle interventions in Morocco: the establishment and support of a major residential institution for physically disabled children. The issues that emerged concerned representation of disabled people, a 'hierarchy' of acceptance relating to disabled people within disabled people's organisations themselves, and the limited timeframe to carry out the research than had originally been planned in order to establish trust with people.|The findings were that the expenses spent on the facility could have been extended to a much wider net of beneficiaries if more community based programmes had been developed. This led to much criticism by officials and project participants. However, no easy solutions emerged to address difficulties in the project, given the complexities involved in discrimination against disabled people.
This book reflects the outcome of the interventions of the NGO Working Group on the World Bank's policies and procedures in relation to participation and participatory development in the 1990's.
It looks particularly at three areas:
À It assesses the success of participatory initiatives carried out by major aid donors drawing on the experiences of both recipients and donors themselves
À It analyses the organisational and policy changes necessary to enable poor stakeholders to participate in decision making
À It examines the strategies and behaviours of the various parties
The Chapters include The World Bank and NGOs: the Evolution of a Participatory Policy, Participation in Development Initiatives, Incorporating Participation of the Poor in International Development Agencies, and in Government Implementing Agencies, and Lessons Learned and Implications for Participation of the Poor.
The book attempts to bring together the lessons learnt regarding advocacy on issues concerning promoting, sustaining and supporting primary stakeholder participation in developing projects and policies of multilateral and bilateral development organisations.
Effective poverty reduction requires narrowing the gap between words and actions, making trust and accountability real within and between organisations, at all levels and between all actors. Aid agencies today are shifting emphasis from projects and service delivery to a language of rights and governance. They have introduced new approaches and requirements, stressing partnership and transparency. But embedded traditions and bureaucratic inertia mean old behaviours, procedures and organisational cultures persist. This Policy Briefing looks at how current practices maintain such cultures, and at how they can be changed by achieving consistency between personal behaviour; institutional norms and the new development agenda.
This article is about a workshop for Oxfam partners in the Yemen. Its key objectives were to introduce community participation as a tool for sustainable development work; to develop and understanding of the role of Oxfam partners for community mobilisation/participation; to introduce participants to PRA tools and show the relevance to their work; and to enhance mainstreaming gender analysis in Oxfam partner's work. Most participants at the workshop represented local NGOs who receive funding form foreign donors, including Oxfam. They represented diverse fields of work, such as women's development, marginalised communities, disability and Social Fund for Development.|The workshop involved discussions around the concepts of community and participation and the changing roles of the partners in the light of using participatory approaches and tools. It includes a discussion of PRA for people with disabilities including methodological innovations.
This book is a collection of selected papers by Anil C. Shah. The book spans the worlds of Government and civil society over a lengthy career working with the poor and marginalised.
It covers a wide range of activities based on direct personal experience and innovation in the field. It contains a mixture of short personal articles and longer, broader and more detailed articles.
The work is presented from a variety of contexts ranging from government administration to NGO's, from community development to joint forest management, from watershed development to participatory irrigation management, and from behaviour, attitudes and training to influencing and changing policy.
This bulletin is a compilation of four papers delivered at DENIVA workshops on 'Governance and Poverty for NGO District Networks' in Uganda in 2001. The papers are informative and contain illustrations. 1) 'The quest for good governance in Uganda: The role of NGO district networks' traces the history of decentralisation in Uganda, the concept of governance, and of the NGO district network. It is argued that there are a number of governance issues that this network should take up: voluntarism, poverty, literacy, civic education, gender, lobbying, income generation, agriculture, human rights and accountability. 2) 'Decentralisation and the question of gender' introduces gender analysis in relation to local governance institutions, provisions and practices, and suggests some strategies for NGOs to follow. 3) 'Decentralisation and Poverty Reduction: The role of NGO district networks' and 4) 'The Local Governments Act, 1997: Issues for NGOs' detail the legal provisions, opportunities and challenges for NGOs vis-Ó-vis local governance in Uganda.
This is the report from a meeting of 49 people engaged in advocacy and citizen participation efforts in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, North America and Europe. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together activists, researchers, trainers and other practitioners to discuss the challenges and successes of citizen-centred advocacy in different country contexts. This report aims to capture key lessons and recommendations to help donors and international NGOs refine their support strategies for training and action in participatory advocacy. The report is structured around the key themes of engagement in advocacy: when is a policy space strategic and when is it just window dressing?; issue-based struggle or struggle-based issues: linking social transformation and policy advocacy; whoÆs who in advocacy: identity, representation and legitimacy; and how to assess success: evaluation for learning.