A resource kit consisting of a video and manuals, providing information and experience on participatory methods in order to support the adoption of participatory approaches in World Bank projects and studies. The kit includes modules on social assessment, stakeholder analysis, PRA, SARAR and beneficiary assessment, and participatory monitoring and evaluation.
This is an exploration of the power dimensions of participatory development and research, and an attempt to look at the shifts in power within communities and institutions which are needed for participatory ideas to be effective. The aim of the book is to connect theory and practice. The book looks at the theoretical basis to participatory development work, drawing on related debates in anthropology, development studies and feminism. Demonstrating that these ideas are equally applicable in the North and in the South, case studies of participatory research techniques are drawn from sites as diverse as development theatre in Mali to video making with homeless people in the UK. Further chapters examine the relative power of the researcher or development agent vis-Ó-vis the community.
After reviewing participatory research and development within communities, the book extends the debate by questioning the shifts in power needed if institutions are to operate in a participatory manner. The book will be of interest to academics, students and practitioners in both the North and the South, and all those involved with courses in development studies, anthropology and sociology. In addition, the book will be a useful tool for agencies and practitioners involved in participatory-style development or research initiatives world-wide.
The Ad Hoc Working Group set up following the adoption of the DAC (Development Co-operation Directorate of OECD) Orientations on Participatory Development and Good Governance at the December 1993 DAC High Level Meeting (HLM) has completed its three-year mandate. Part I (i.e. the present part) of this report sets out the main results of this work as agreed by DAC Members in the framework of the Ad Hoc Working Group. This includes an agreed policy note, endorsed by the HLM of 1996, on in country co-ordination and a related guidance note on possible first steps for donors. It looks at the conclusions and action-oriented outcomes; the major points emerging from topic discussions; promoting in-country dialogue and coordination; and linkages to other development objectives and the DAC strategy for shaping the 21st century. It also contains three annexes with: Mandate and scope of work of the DAC Ad Hoc working group on PD/GG; Policy note on strengthening country level coordination for participatory development and good governance; and Proposed guidance for introducing in-country coordination on participatory development and good governance issues. Part II, Lessons from Experience in Selected Areas of Support for Participatory Development and Good Governance, contains summaries of the discussions on the main themes taken up over the last three years in formal meetings and in a series of informal seminars organised jointly by Members and the OECD Development Centre. Additionally, a separate publication Evaluation of Programs Promoting Participatory Development and Good Governance resulting from surveys of evaluation results and lessons learned in a number of relevant PD/GG ôsectorsö.
Final report of the ad hoc Working Group on Participatory Development and Good Governance: Part 2, Lessons from experience in selected areas of support for participatory development and good governance
The Ad Hoc Working Group set up following the adoption of the DAC (Development Co-operation Directorate of OECD) Orientations on Participatory Development and Good Governance at the December 1993 DAC High Level Meeting (HLM) has completed its three-year mandate. Part I of this report contains the final report while part II (i.e. the present part), Lessons from Experience in Selected Areas of Support for Participatory Development and Good Governance, contains summaries of the discussions on the main themes taken up over the last three years in formal meetings and in a series of informal seminars organised jointly by Members and the OECD Development Centre. It looks at the role of donors in the democratisation process; civil society and democratisation; human rights in development cooperation; legal systems; and democratic decentralisation. Additionally, a separate publication Evaluation of Programs Promoting Participatory Development and Good Governance resulting from surveys of evaluation results and lessons learned in a number of relevant PD/GG sectors.
This article provides a summary of the major challenges currently facing PRA, as well as the changes implied by some of these challenges. The challenges are considered at six different levels, namely the individual, community, organisational, project and programme, donor and policy levels. The challenges identified are drawn from the literature on PRA, as well as from a recent series of workshops held by the author with the staff of six NGOs that are promoting PRA in South Asia. The article concludes by attributing these challenges to five cross-cutting factors: differences in power, culture, knowledge, money and time.
This paper describes how the Indonesian government incorporated elements of PRA to launch a nation-wide programme of participatory village planning in 60,000 villages to be completed within the 1995-1996 budget year ending in March 1996. The article analyses the mistakes committed in attempting to scale up too fast in the face of too many constraints: too few sufficiently experienced trainers resulting in poor quality training, unrealistic budget and time constraints imposed by government, and the pre-existing top- down culture of development planning in Indonesia. The article shows in very clear terms that participatory approaches cannot be tagged on to existing national programmes, and that scaling-up will fail if it is rushed.
This paper shares FARM AFRICA- Farmers Research Project 's (FRP) experience in bringing attitudinal and behavioural change among the professionals of the project. The paper asserts that although the focus of PRA training at FRP is on methods, substantial albeit varied changes have been noticed in the attitudes and behaviour of professionals involved with the project. This includes the officials of the Ministry of Agriculture whose attitudes have changed as a result of PRA training and other related activities such workshops, seminars, visits and dissemination. The paper outlines a series of strategies to spread the impact of PRA and to convince senior policy makers about the importance of PRA.
This report documents the experience of a local Sri Lankan NGO, National Development Foundation (NDF) in participatory rural development. The report shows how NDF's approaches changed after being introduced to PRA methods, although NDF had been supposedly practising a participatory approach since the inception of the programme with an emphasis on providing technical support to villages and strengthening organisational capacities of farmers' organisations. The report concludes that the introduction of PRA in the programme has helped maintain a good relationship between the staff and the farmers' organisations, has encouraged active participation of the farmers' organisations in planning, decision making and in taking greater responsibility as the main actors of the programme.
Changes in Attitudes, Roles and Behaviour of Public Servants and Beneficiaries Effected Through the Applications of PRA Methods by the NWP Dry Zone Participatory Development Project
This report describes the experience of New Dry Zone Participatory Development Project, a government project, in using PRA and its impact on the behaviour of both the public servants and the beneficiaries. The report summarises the main components of the project and the implementation process which involves PRA training for the technical support team (the staff of the government departments), development of a village resource management plan and the implementation of the plan using participatory methods. The report presents the findings of the case study conducted in selected villages to find out the extent of PRA influence in changing attitudes, roles and behaviour of the staff and the villagers involved in the project and the parameters used in measuring such changes. It also outlines the constraints and limitations of using PRA in the context of the project and the issues for further discussion.
This paper discusses the experiences of ActionAid (India) in providing PRA support to various government agencies in Madhya Pradesh, India. Their involvement with forestry, administration and education departments is described. The author offers summaries of the varying status of institutionalisation of PRA. The informal and formal processes of feedback are critical to implementation and sustainability. Perceptions of field staff are central to feedback. Informally elicited perceptions are discussed. Error should be embraced and sharing encouraged. Personal commitment of staff, resource persons and institutions are also identified as important.
Robert Chambers Visit And Workshop Held In Gli: Peoples Participation In Watershed And Development Programmes.
This is an account at a workshop on the interaction between Robert Chambers, people from the watershed scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development of India and professionals in the field. The workshop focused on five broad themes: Issue pertaining to common property, Participation by women, contribution, watershed Association and the process of Participation. The report highlights the issues discussed under the themes and the suggestions arrived at by the participants. It focuses on management of common property resources, institutional problems, social, religious and political differences, attitudinal change and the process of participation.
ABC of PRA: Attitude, Behaviour and Change : a report on South - South workshop on PRA : attitudes and behaviour.
This is a report of a workshop organised for experienced trainers from the South, focusing on attitudes and behaviour. In particular: How do attitudes and behaviour of officials and professionals change when they become involved with PRA? What training (or other strategies) encourage such change? The report contains personal experiences and training tips. The report also presents issues on the institutionalisation of PRA, and PRA in developed countries, and has a section aimed at donors and governments. The vision statement of the Network is to provide opportunities to like-minded institutions, organisations and individuals committed to participatory approaches to strengthen capacities in various processes of community development. The concluding sections has summaries of 17 papers presented by participants, a field visit report, workshop evaluation and sharing of concerns and plans for the future. It ends with individual commitments and addresses of the participants.