There is a brief review of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Agroecosystem Analysis (AA). The concepts underpinning these methods, particularly the emphasis on locally attained data, are explained, and their application is expounded. The multidisciplinary aspect of these methods is focused upon. There is a detailed bibliography.
Considers the changes that are afoot with regard to learning, research and extension within agriculture in developing countries. Decentralization, participatory approaches and such methods are gradually becoming less marginalized, with the professional rewards of their adoption rising compared with the risks. For change to be rapid and sustainable requires the mutual reinforcement of participatory methods, new learning environments, and institutional support. The paper contains sections on the following: changing phases in agricultural research, extension and development; a vision for the future; the role of governments and state institutions; non governmental organizations; international agricultural research and the CGIAR; local institutions; education and learning organizations; and institutional and policy implications for the new professionalism. It is concluded that a sound strategy is steady lateral spread through alliances, mutual support, networking, training and sharing, stressing not only methods and learning environments, but also personal behaviour and attitudes.
This paper begins with the perspective that "the dominant positivist and modernist frameworks have singularly failed to help poor people and reduce inequity." It proceeds to consider the options and alternatives to the dominant paradigm considering common uniting themes. Some of these themes are: the affirmation of individuals and their perspectives, the importance of context and therefore limitations on the whole notion of transferability and replicability and the importance of participation.
Participatory Rapid Appraisal: An Investigation into the Health and Social Needs of People Living in Danesmoor - Volume 1
The aim of this study was to identify the health and social problems in relation to Danesmoor, an area in North Derbyshire with high unemployment. PRA techniques were used to collect qualitative information from three main sources : key community people, community members, professionals working in the area. Questions were asked regarding people's perceptions of the area, the health and social problems, existing care service provision and "magic wand" - "within reason what would benefit individuals, families and the community as a whole". This report presents the findings under the groups of people interviewed (eg single mothers, children, health visitors, doctors, playgroup leader), giving direct quotations and their suggested magic wand solution to the problems. Lack of communication and coordination between various service providers is identified as a key issue. Finally an "overall magic wand" (solution to common problems) and a plan of action were made.
Unemployment and health: the development of the use of PRA in identified communities in Staveley, North Derbyshire
This study in Staveley, an area with high unemployment, aimed to: i) identify & enable people to address the personal risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases ii) enable unemployed workers to discuss health difficulties specific to unemployment iii) promote a greater understanding of the specific health needs of unemployed people Unemployed people and 200 children were interviewed, then key people in the professions of education, health, social services, police, clergy and housing. Video, photos and mapping were used and people "had an opportunity to test their own health by filling in a health profile questionnaire". The various groups' different perceptions of the problems and suggested solutions are analysed. There is a need for "an informed, integrated, inter-agency approach with the involvement of unemployed people in order to respond effectively to the problems of unemployment".
This is a midterm participatory evaluation report of a watershed programme in Tiruchirappalli, South India. The project used PRA techniques (integrated with other methods) in the planning and impact evaluation stages. The report includes a detailed background to the programme and quantitative findings. No detail is given on how the PRA activities were carried out as the emphasis is on the information collected, including case-studies on the impact on women's status.
Effective health planning requires good quality data, but many health facilities lack the ability to provide this. Health questions often have to be answered within specific research studies. Microcomputers are now generally recommended and used by researchers for data analysis at the end of projects. The article reviews the use of microcomputer based management of data collection during a study. A selection of pojects are described, all of which have used microcomputers in a decentralised fachio, closer to the point of data collection. The main advantages of this approach are a significant reduction in error rates, and the ability to produce data quickly.
Professionalism, participation and the public good : issues of arbitration in development management and the critique of the neo-populist approach
Conference paper argues that participation can leave decision making largely in the hands of middle class elements and not with the peasant mass. Participatory approaches also favour the internationalisation of authority, diluting standards of national accountability. The approaches are based on a hierarchy of values and attitudes and not on the promotion of a truly representative democracy.
Rural development forestry in Scotland : the struggle to bring international principles and best practices to the last bastion of British colonial forestry.
Examines the failure of the state forestry agency (the Forestry Commission) to involve local rural communities in the management of its substantial forest land holdings in Scotland. This disregard for local people is in spite of the governments declared support for the UNCED Forest Principles and the article suggests that the FC would do well to learn from the governments overseas technical assistance programmes.
The experience of three Scottish NGO's to ensure the participation of local people at all stages of forestry planning and implementation through the use of PRA is outlined. This programme is revealed to have met with some opposition from the Foestry Commission but at the same time to have acted as a catalyst for recent changes in forest policy.
Improving forestry education through participatory curriculum development: a case study from Vietnam
This journal article presents a case study of the Social Forestry Support Programme in Vietnam, in which Participatory Curriculum Development (PCD) plays a fundamental part. Beginning with stakeholder identification and analysis, PCD provides an overall framework for educational development. Recognising constraints associated with the process, the paper describes strategies aimed at capacity building, management of stakeholder involvement and planning and evaluation. As different stakeholders learn to learn together through discourse and interaction, the chances of sustainable outcomes from the PCD process should be improved. The dynamic and flexible nature of PCD suggests that there is considerable potential for its adaptation and application in a range of different contexts.
This paper addresses some of the key issues arising from Helvetas' experience of Participatory Curriculum Development (PCD). These include:|Costs of PCD|Benefits of PCD| Constraints to PCD|Factors which facilitate the PCD process|It may be best viewed with reference to paper 4302 and 4303 by the same author which looks at the issues of PCD in Vietnam.
This bibliography was prepared for the Development Research Centre (DRC) on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability, a research network co-ordinated in the UK by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS). This DRC aims to include the voices of citizens into the debates around citizenship and contribute to the understanding of citizenship: the realities, challenges, and opportunities it poses for different people and the utilization of citizensÆ knowledge to develop strategies for change. The range of contemporary thinking around citizenship is reviewed in an essay included in the booklet. This provides a theoretical frame of reference for empirical work on the relationship between citizenship, participation and accountability. Also included is a section of references of recent texts that have been selected by the authors relating to citizenship, participation and accountability. Each one has a brief description.
Assessing participation in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: a desk-based synthesis of experience in sub-Saharan Africa
This review provides an update on practice and experiences of civil society participation in the development of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). It was commissioned by DFID and conducted from August-October 2001 by the Participation Group at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS). It begins with an overview of how the principle of participation has been interpreted by a range of actors and how these vary between International Financial Institutions, civil society and governments. Underpinning these variations is the difference between civil society participation as a means to a more effective poverty reduction strategy and participation as a means for non governmental actors to gain voice in their country's policy making and political processes. The review suggests that on balance civil society participation can add considerable value to PRSP processes and to transforming policy environments in ways that are beneficial to the poor and supportive of better governance and more responsive behaviour by governments and donor institutions. Although participation can add value, the review does not demonstrate conclusively that in all countries significant value has been added to date, nor that as much has been added as could be with better quality participatory processes.
This annotated bibliography reviews a broad selection of literature on the subject of citizen participation and local governance, including theoretical debates and case studies, and suggests approaches for both policy makers and practitioners. It is divided into four sections, preceded by an introductory overview. The first section includes resources on current theoretical concepts and debates on 'citizenship' and 'participation' especially in the context of decentralisation. The second section brings together reports, articles, workshop write-ups, manuals and academic research on the different strategies and mechanisms that citizens are using around the world in order to forge new links with the state and participate in local governance. The third section reviews literature on the responsiveness of local government to citizen demands and participation. Here such state-led initiatives as participatory budgeting, and deliberative forums are analysed. Section Four addresses the question of which conditions are necessary to promote meaningful space for democratic social change at the local level, and which are more likely to re-enforce patterns of political and social inequality. The literature is drawn from experiences across the globe but features especially India, the Philippines, Mexico, UK, USA, Brazil and Bolivia.
This training manual is designed for members of Philippine local government units (LGUs) and civil society groups to increase their knowledge of participatory local governance. It responds to the prevailing view in the Philippines that decentralisation has not changed institutional arrangements at the local level, but has devolved rent-seeking. Decentralisation and citizen participation in local governance are seen to be key to citizen and barangay empowerment. The manual seeks to fill the knowledge gap in LGU officers and citizen organisations, about the opportunities, rights and duties pertaining to citizen participation and barangay governance. The topics included are concepts and processes of participatory governance, decentralisation and features of the 1991 Local Government Code and administration of LGUs, features of barangay governance, revenue and fiscal concerns, participatory development planning (with PRA methods) and budgeting and barangay (village) enterprise development. Mainstream development theories are challenged, and alternatives for sustainable local development through sustained community organisation are proposed, to address gender and other inequalities.