This report discusses appropriate mechanisms for community involvement in different social, economic, and political contexts and identifies the corresponding requirements for training health personnel and strengthening communities. Participatory methods are suggested for training health workers. It is suggested that monitoring and evaluation involves a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques.
This book describes a grassroots approach to empowering people for democratic social change. It explains participatory research using exemplarly case studies on community organizing, femist theory and ecological movements from a range of locations in North America. It challenges the relevance and validity of academic social science research.
This collection of articles demonstrates some of the methodological problems which may be experienced in participatory research. This is followed by examples of participatory research, which illustrate general and methodological observations from different sectors and continents. Donors perspectives are the subject of a chapter and finally there is a listing of contacts in participatory research and networking.
This case book was prepared by an independent task force on 'community action for social development' as a prelude to the Copenhagen Social Summit. The 12 case studies on successful community-based social development are from a wide range of countries, such as Zimbabwe, Colombia, Tanzania, Sweden, India, Kenya, Poland, Pakistan, Tibet, Thailand and China. This casebook presents diversity of the worldwide movement towards community- based social development and defines a common process used by the successful programs. A common theme that runs through these case studies is that sustainable social development is difficult but possible; outside agencies involved in sustainable human development should respect people, their values and cultures, build trust and share power and responsibility with the people. The book also stresses the need to provide space for community action and maintain close co-operation between the state, community and NGO.
The proceedings of a workshop focussing on three topics: rigour and integrity in PRA work, PRA training quality and funding and related pressures for compromises.
Annex 2 provides a case study of the community consultation methodology used by the Groundwork Trust in the community of Gellidog. Annex 3 outlines the Teenage Sexual Health Research Project being carried out in Wester Hailes using a participatory methodology. Finally there is an updated list of the PA network in Scotland.
'Voices of the Poor' is a series of three books that collates the experiences, views and aspirations of over 60,000 poor women and men. This second book of the series draws material from a 23-country comparative study, which used open-ended participatory methods, bringing together the voices and realities of 20,000 poor women, men, youth and children. Despite very different political, social and economic contexts, there are striking similarities in poor people's experiences. The common underlying theme is one of powerlessness, which consists of multiple and interlocking dimensions of illbeing or poverty. The book starts by describing the origins of the study, the methodology and some of the challenges faced. This is followed by an exploration of the multidimensional nature of wellbeing and illbeing. Most of the book comprises the core findings - the 10 dimensions of powerlessness and illbeing that emerge from the study - and is organised around these themes. These include livelihoods and assets; the places where poor people live and work; the body and related to this, accessing health services; gender roles and gender relations within the household; social exclusion; insecurity and related fears and anxieties; the behaviour and character of institutions; and poor people's ratings of the most important institutions in their lives. These dimensions are brought together into a many-stranded web of powerlessness, which is compounded by the lack of capability, including lack of information, education, skills and confidence. The final chapter is a call to action and dwells on the challenge of change.
An account of the way a women's environmental network made use of participatory processes to make connections between the national and local levels in the UK on breast cancer. The article demonstrates how links can be built between advocacy and empowerment through a participatory process.
This toolkit was elaborated by the Economic Literacy Action Network (ELAN) in the USA. The aim of the toolkit is to help people strengthen their analysis of globalisation and share ideas of ways that people were struggling against globalisation internationally. The toolkit is based on a gathering held in Chicago 1998 where educational materials already created were shared and discussed, and on consequent sessions held in ELAN groups. It presents seven sessions on different subject related to globalisation, which can be used as a basis for discussion, learning and reflection, and is intended to be used in smaller groups. The sessions include exercises, questions and case studies. The toolkit first gives a brief introduction to the principles and practices of popular education and goes on to the sessions, with the following contributions: womenÆs education in the global economy, looking at how women indifferent countries and communities are tied together by the globalisation of production and markets; a global economy workshop in three parts focussing on power relations and new peopleÆs movements, and a globalisation glossary; Analysing the financial crises in Asia; Privatisation; WTO for beginners; a workbook dealing with welfare, crime, injustice and health care from a Southern perspective, including a critical thinking toolbox; a participatory workshop on womenÆs labour and economic globalisation. The toolkit is concluded with a directory to ELAN groups.
A fundamental principle of successful participation is that participants are enthusiastic, interested and choose to take part. However, in some cases, community gatekeepers prevent some people from becoming involved, whilst forcing others to do so. This article, in PLA Notes, No. 40 examines the dilemmas faced by a community development project working with sex workers in Cambodia, bound by debt to their managers who, by not complying to their managers restrictions risk violent repercussions from them, as well as potential arrest by external authorities. The article describes the origins of the Lotus Club; a project established within the community health clinic for sex-workers to identify shared experiences and goals and thus form trusting relationships. It outlines the ethical concerns that the team working on the project have faced, so far, and the participatory steps taken to address these issues. The biggest concern was that of consent, with additional concerns being of transparency, confidentiality and compensation. The authors are optimistic that, despite difficulties, community building and collective action among sex workers can be sustained through PLA.
Lessons from malaria control activities in urban West Africa using a research-action-capacity building approach
This paper discusses how a community-based approach - Research Action Capacity-building (RAC) - can be valuable for malaria control and more specifically for the dissemination of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs), using the case study of a bednet project in N'Djamena, capital of Chad. A description of the concepts and methods of the RAC approach is given, along with a comparison with the like-minded approach of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) - the RAC approach emphasizing that social change is its ultimate goal. The potential of the RAC approach for mobilizing and strengthening community-based activities is discussed. In addition a report on the successes and failures occurring in the case study, of the initial stages of the net selling and impregnation centres is outlined. In conclusion, the authors propose two major points. Firstly, when promoting ITNs, technical, economic and social factors must be targeted. Lastly, collaboration and communication at local, regional and international levels are vital for a project to be sustainable.
This book provides practical guidelines for using participatory approaches for planning social development programmes, particularly in the areas of health and education. It explores how information can be used to develop equal partnerships between professionals and the people who are intended to benefit from the programme. It discusses the importance of generating information, encouraging active participation and the subsequent empowerment of local people to give them the confidence needed to make decisions that affect their own lives - the book explores how information is obtained and used. Topics covered include why information is important for planning and empowerment choosing appropriate methods and techniques, carrying out a participatory needs assessment, and investigating particular samples of participatory planning. Drawings, tables and photographs are used to illustrate examples of planning techniques and a list of further reading is included with a select bibliography.