The Ogaden Needs Assessment Study was undertaken as a joint exercise between SCF(UK) and the Pastoral Surveillance Team of the RRC Early Warning and Planning Services. The trigger for the study was the influx into the Ogaden of thousands of returnees from Somalia and concern about capacity of the region to support the growing population. A rural sample survey was carried out using two helicopters. The objective was to establish the nutritional status of children and also to get data on grain production, consumption, sale and exchange, and the prospects of the food economy. The health data was obtained using standard anthropometric procedures, while socio-economic data was gathered by the use of questionnaires on key informants. The survey showed that the combined effects of the collapse of the livestock/grain trade and the continuing burden of the returnee population could result in a food crisis during the following dry season.
Nutritional surveillance, as part of, or complementary to, the famine early warning system in Ethiopia, has been used to collect reports on local food security from community leaders using structured interviews. It is important to assess the extent to which this information reflects the food-related behaviour of the community. Information on various socio-economic variables related to nutrition was collected at the household and community level through interviews in western Shewa Province. The data was compared and generally the correspondence between the two was good. Information topics which might be missed using only the local leader, and ways to improve collection are discussed.
This paper describes a game and a story that were presented during the workshop to show how PRA can "help people to address and resolve conflict". The TASO game (described in the appendix) was used to illustrate current HIV transmission rates in Uganda. The story showed how PRA exercises conducted by Redd Barna in Zimbabwe brought out women's and men's different views of a proposed irrigation scheme. The potential for PRA to help resolve such conflicts is the emphasis placed on "the value of good communication skills". Development workers need to learn "facilitation and arbitration skills" in order to deal with, rather than "glossing over" conflict and "failing to acknowledge the political dimensions to all our interventions". Psychological stress (particularly in relation to HIV and AIDS) also needs to be recognised as "a valid development issue".
The bulk of the document concentrates on indicators of malnutrition, famine and the ability of early warning predictors. The relationship between famine and nutrition is discussed. There is a section which deals with methodology of assesment, and is split between formal, qualitative data collection and quantitative assesments, predominantly RRA and PRA. The applications and analysis of quantitative data are discussed, with many of the criticisms of qualitative work being outlined, and a combination with quantitative work suggested.
Using participatory rural appraisal to assess community HIV risk factors: experiences from rural Uganda
The Rakai AIDS Information Network (RAIN) in Uganda used PRA methods to help community members identify and analyze factors which put them at risk of HIV infection. The article describes the different methods used, which included mapping, seasonal calendars and men and women's 24-hour activities, and what community members and programme staff learned about community HIV risk factors.
This is a report of a PRA workshop organised by he Near East Foundation held in Cairo, Egypt with participants drawn from; research political and religious institutions, and Sudanese indigenous groups resident in Egypt as refugees. The training was intended to equip the participants in their work with skills to identify problems and address the needs of the communities. The participants carried out a study in five districts with high densities of Sudanese settlers with particular emphasis on needs of women, health needs and overall economic condition.. The main theme of the 10 day classroom and fieldwork training are; Background of PRA methods and accept, PRA approaches in development, Team work and group dynamics, Methods for data collection and analysis and principles of needs assessment. The second part of the report is the summary of findings on the fieldwork conducted: It includes aspects on the economic characteristics of the Sudanese communities, Trading and street selling activities, Factory workers and lay people, income generating activities, expenditure patterns, health conditions, and the institutions and groups that serve the community. Drawing on the recommendations in the second part , a third section of the report is in a project design and proposal that has been submitted to the Ford Foundation. It concludes with a report on a one day workshop to share the findings of the research, a plenary session report and which would be fed into project document.
This book presents issues and challenges facing those facilitating children's and young people's participation. The contributors come from a wide range of backgrounds including NGOs in development, children's agencies, academic insitutions and governments and provide case studies from the UK, Eastern Europe, asia, Africa, the Carribean and central and north America. Chapter 1 gives and overview to the main issues and concepts and chapters 2-7 each expand on a particular theme. The main issues discussed and analysed include: the ethical dilemmas facing professionals, the process and methods used in partlicipatory research and planning with children, the inter-relationship between culture and children's participation, considerations for instiutions and the key qualities of a participation programme.
'Voices of the Poor' is a series of three books that collates the experiences, views and aspirations of over 60,000 poor women and men. This second book of the series draws material from a 23-country comparative study, which used open-ended participatory methods, bringing together the voices and realities of 20,000 poor women, men, youth and children. Despite very different political, social and economic contexts, there are striking similarities in poor people's experiences. The common underlying theme is one of powerlessness, which consists of multiple and interlocking dimensions of illbeing or poverty. The book starts by describing the origins of the study, the methodology and some of the challenges faced. This is followed by an exploration of the multidimensional nature of wellbeing and illbeing. Most of the book comprises the core findings - the 10 dimensions of powerlessness and illbeing that emerge from the study - and is organised around these themes. These include livelihoods and assets; the places where poor people live and work; the body and related to this, accessing health services; gender roles and gender relations within the household; social exclusion; insecurity and related fears and anxieties; the behaviour and character of institutions; and poor people's ratings of the most important institutions in their lives. These dimensions are brought together into a many-stranded web of powerlessness, which is compounded by the lack of capability, including lack of information, education, skills and confidence. The final chapter is a call to action and dwells on the challenge of change.