This long and detailed study describes how the mandal (administrative area) of Devikere in Jagalar, Karnataka State was selected as the appropriate site for an Action Aid anti-poverty project. A socio-economic survey was conducted by a multi-disciplinary team using mainly RRA techniques. The methodology employed appears to have much in common with farming systems research. A section of the report is devoted to health issues. This includes: nutrition and food availability; mother and child wellbeing, health practices and beliefs; the environment; housing; occupation and health services. The anthropological/ethnographic technique of using case studies of individuals adds a strong human dimension to the study. Separate sections are devoted to women, infrastructure and sanitation, and socio-economic conditions.
This report is a review of the different participatory methodologies used in development throughout Africa. It includes overviews of the literature on participatory development, and participation in agriculture and natural resource management, forestry, health, credit, literacy, water, and urban programming. Numerous methodologies are outlined (e.g. animation rurale, auto-evaluation, GRAAP, Theatre for Development, RRA etc.). ACORD's experience with participatory methodologies in Burkina Faso, Mali, Uganda and Sudan are discussed in detail. There are annotated bibliographies on ACORD and key general publications relating to participatory methodologies, and lists of key institutions.
Coping with cost recovery: a study of the social impact of and responses to cost recovery in basic services (health and education) in poor communities in Zambia
The report deals with the social implications of the cost-recovery measures adopted in the Zambian health and education sectors since 1989. The focus of the study is on the impact of the charges on access to basic health care and primary education among the poorest sections of the urban and rural population. The report is also concerned with the way poor communities, and the most vulnerable households within them, cope with demands to contribute more. It concludes by reviewing alternative ways of ensuring that the poorest are able to maintain access to basic services. A mix of approaches were used, including a range of standard RRA methods, focus-group work and anthropological insights from more traditional sources. The study also drew on a baseline survey and intensive household studies which had been carried out over several years.
This describes a Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) undertaken by the Government of Kenya and the World Bank during Febuary-April 1994. It had three primary objectives; to understand poverty from the perspective of the poor, to start a process of dialogue between policy makers, district level providers and the poor and to address the issue of the 'value added' of the PPA approach to understanding poverty. Methods used included mapping, wealth ranking, seasonal analysis, trend and price analysis, focus group discussions, key informant interviews; visual card methods, gender analysis, understanding health seeking behaviour; and incomplete sentences. Statistically the findings of the PPA and the Welfare Monitoring Survey based on an established poverty line were strikingly similar. The study also found a gap in the perception of poverty between the poor themselves and district officials. Separate chapters look at poverty in urban Nairobi and Mandera district.
Participatory Rapid Appraisal of Community Needs and Potential Resources for Sustainable Development in Rosetta.
This is a report of a PRA exercise conducted in Rosetta, Egypt. The aim was to assess the communityÆs needs and resources, and to identify the communityÆs proposals and contributions to potential development schemes. The results concern physical infrastucture, employment opportunities, and taxation. Organisations which could be involved in regeneration are identified.
Towards community-based indicators for monitoring quality of life and the impact of industry in South Durban.
Findings from research carried out in residential communities adjacent to chemical industries in Durban. The purpose of the research was to begin the process of developing community-based quality of life indicators for monitoring and evaluating the performance of the industries. This was done using a range of participatory methods with men and women in community groups, and was part of a wider set of Local Agenda 21 activities within the city.
This toolkit was elaborated by the Economic Literacy Action Network (ELAN) in the USA. The aim of the toolkit is to help people strengthen their analysis of globalisation and share ideas of ways that people were struggling against globalisation internationally. The toolkit is based on a gathering held in Chicago 1998 where educational materials already created were shared and discussed, and on consequent sessions held in ELAN groups. It presents seven sessions on different subject related to globalisation, which can be used as a basis for discussion, learning and reflection, and is intended to be used in smaller groups. The sessions include exercises, questions and case studies. The toolkit first gives a brief introduction to the principles and practices of popular education and goes on to the sessions, with the following contributions: womenÆs education in the global economy, looking at how women indifferent countries and communities are tied together by the globalisation of production and markets; a global economy workshop in three parts focussing on power relations and new peopleÆs movements, and a globalisation glossary; Analysing the financial crises in Asia; Privatisation; WTO for beginners; a workbook dealing with welfare, crime, injustice and health care from a Southern perspective, including a critical thinking toolbox; a participatory workshop on womenÆs labour and economic globalisation. The toolkit is concluded with a directory to ELAN groups.
This report is a result of the first ever Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process (UPPAP) in which local people were consulted in 36 rural and urban sites in nine districts in Uganda. In this assessment "voices" and perspectives of the poor are brought to the fore to influence district and national planning, implementation and monitoring. The report covers perceptions of poverty and wellbeing and strategies for coping with being poor, as well as the degree to which the poor have access to, and benefit from, services and infrastructure. It goes on to look at issues of government and poverty, along with the role that security plays in development. Finally there are rcommendations and messages for policy makers. The report points to the fact that poverty is more than just income and expenditure or the lack of basic needs, it is also a feeling of powerlessness. Poverty in the eyes of the poor is location specific, multi-dimensional, cyclic and seasonal and requires a holistic approach to it's alleviation.
This book explores the potential contribution of a human rights perspective to the development of policies and programmes that strengthen the sustainability of poor people's assets and livelihood security. A review of key elements in human rights, livelihoods and sustainable development debates identifies areas of common concern. This shows that concepts of livelihoods and sustainable development both require a stronger analysis of power relations, institutions and politics. A human rights framework provides an entry point for the analysis of asymmetries in power and the institutions which reinforce these unequal relations. A conceptual framework for the analysis of human rights dimensions of livelihoods is developed, supported by case study material. This operates at three levels - the normative, analytical and operational and includes such tools as a human rights and livelihoods matrix, a rights regime analysis, channels of contestation matrix and an entry point checklist. The authors argue that a rights and livelihoods perspective provides a more concrete understanding of social sustainability and sustainable development. The book concludes with two propositions for analysing social sustainability from a rights and livelihoods perspective.
Budgeting for women and men: a handbook for local government councillors, district planners and leaders of civil society organisations
This handbook is intended to assist Ugandan officials and activists at District Level to include the concerns of women, men and children in district budgets. It was prepared to introduce the national priorities in the Poverty Eradication Action Plan, to provide guidelines on how to identify gender issues and how to examine a sector policy and budget with a 'gender lens'. An examination is undertaken of gender roles and of concerns and gaps in the sectors of education and health, with questions at the end of each section to guide the investigator. Additionally, advice is given on a gender analysis of the budget, and on how the district budget fits in the national budget, including step by step instructions on the budget process, the preparation of the budget, and monitoring and reporting on the use of funds.
This report from the Lessons From the Field series presents methods and findings of a participatory evaluation of integrated reproductive health programs in two villages in India, with comparisons to a third village that had no reproductive health programming. The evaluation of the reproductive health component of the Bayalu Seeme Rural Devlopment Society (BSRDS) integrated programme took place in 2001 in the villages of Nellur, Yelenavadgi and Khanapur of the Aland subdistrict of the Gulbarga district south of Karnataka, India. The objectives were to review the reproductive health component of the BSRDS integrated programme to examine impact, outcome and progress; to determine the lessons learned from the application; and to develop capacity of NGO staff for self-evaluation. The evaluation method was integrated and included aspects of womenÆs status, reproductive health, group capacity, organisational capacity, integration, and savings and credit. It involved a comparison village and incorporated quantitative and qualitative methods. The results suggest that there were significant changes in key reproductive health practices; changes in indicators of womenÆs status; loans given by the created womenÆs groups had an impact on the livelihood of ca. a third of the group members; and that the womenÆs groups have developed capacities to effectively implement, monitor and evaluate their activities. It was found that the linkages between the menÆ agriculture groups and the womenÆs groups have been important and that the integrative model appeared cost-effective.
The assessment of household wealth in health studies in developing countries: a comparison of participatory wealth ranking and survey techniques from rural South Africa
Health researchers often wish to study the impact of wealth on health outcomes. To do this they must collect data on social and economic factors. However, the collection of detailed data on income and expenditure is rare in health studies in developing countries. Instead, researchers generally adopt more rapid procedures based on survey methodology. Increasingly this has included the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to generate a number of separate indicators of welfare. An alternative approach is to utilise participatory wealth ranking to generate a measure of household wealth. The aim of this paper was to compare the results of Participatory Wealth Ranking (PWR) and an indicator-based survey methodology conducted within a health research programme (the IMAGE study) in rural South Africa. The data point to widespread and severe poverty among the study population, including indications of high unemployment, reliance on wage remittance and state grants, poor access to clothing, and fragile food and educational security. Household wealth indices were created from both techniques, using PCA to combine the survey data. Data from both techniques was available from 1467 households. There was a high level of internal of consistency in the participatory wealth ranking data However there was only moderate agreement between the ranking of householdsÆ relative wealth from the two techniques, although both techniques identified similar factors as of importance in determining wealth. The reasons for the discrepancy are unclear, but are likely to include methodological and conceptual factors inherent in both techniques. PWR may be a useful tool for the assessment of relative wealth in health studies in developing countries.