Malnutrition remains a serious problem in most developing countries today. Experience has shown that when a community is fully involved in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nutrition and other development projects, these are likely to be more effective and sustainable. These guidelines for participatory approaches to nutrition projects are designed for use by professional staff from different institutional and technical backgrounds, working with development at a community level. They describe different aspects of participatory nutrition projects through four parts: The preparatory phase where existing information is reviewed, links are established to other development organisations and institutions, community relationships and dialogue are initiated and strengthened; The rationale and implementation of participatory appraisal of community food and nutrition presenting different visualisation and analysis techniques; Design and implementation of participatory projects an activities and how to find funding for micro-project proposals; The rationale and implementation of monitoring and evaluation. All the parts include boxes with case-studies from different parts of the world (e.g. Kenya, Tanzania, Guinea, Mexico, Philippines) and are concluded with an analysis of potential constraints and the role of the developmental worker described in steps.
'Voices of the Poor' is a series of three books that collates the experiences, views and aspirations of over 60,000 poor women and men. This second book of the series draws material from a 23-country comparative study, which used open-ended participatory methods, bringing together the voices and realities of 20,000 poor women, men, youth and children. Despite very different political, social and economic contexts, there are striking similarities in poor people's experiences. The common underlying theme is one of powerlessness, which consists of multiple and interlocking dimensions of illbeing or poverty. The book starts by describing the origins of the study, the methodology and some of the challenges faced. This is followed by an exploration of the multidimensional nature of wellbeing and illbeing. Most of the book comprises the core findings - the 10 dimensions of powerlessness and illbeing that emerge from the study - and is organised around these themes. These include livelihoods and assets; the places where poor people live and work; the body and related to this, accessing health services; gender roles and gender relations within the household; social exclusion; insecurity and related fears and anxieties; the behaviour and character of institutions; and poor people's ratings of the most important institutions in their lives. These dimensions are brought together into a many-stranded web of powerlessness, which is compounded by the lack of capability, including lack of information, education, skills and confidence. The final chapter is a call to action and dwells on the challenge of change.
In recent years there has been a major shift in attitudes to community involvement in health care. Approaches that saw communities primarily as passive recipients of health care have given way to those which seek to make more of the potential that more active community participation might offer for enhanced accountability and improved responsiveness of services. With this shift has come a greater emphasis on issues of governance and on institutional dimensions of participation, whilst the introduction of partnership models in the health sector has further increased debates about participation in health care. In 1999 the IDS Participation and Health and Social Change groups convened a workshop to share experiences of the use of participatory approaches in enhancing accountability in the health sector and to explore some of these challenges. The fifteen articles in this Bulletin reflect some of the richness of experience on the ground in building effective participation as well as some of the many issues that arise in moving towards more active citizen engagement with service provision. They draw experience from current work in countries such as Zimbabwe, Cambodia, China, Nepal, Zambia and Pakistan to reflect on links between participation, accountability and improvements in health.
This is a review done for the Department for International Development (DFID), UK, by CAFOD and it partners in Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe to understand behavioural changes in the context of HIV and assess whether programme approaches had an impact on the behaviour related concerns of communities. The authors chart the process with its participatory evaluation approach and point out that the process has contributed significant tools such as the significant changes matrix which has the potential to build close relations between working partners and participants.
A series of articles focusing on participatory approaches to sexual and reproductive health from around the world. The inititiatives described range from innovative uses of participatory methods to enhance communication and understanding to strategies to amplify the voices of people of people who would otherwise remain unheard in policy and institutional processes.
This booklet reflects on the challenges and concerns facing participatory development in Kenya through five case studies. The first case study presents Visualisation in Participatory ProgrammesÆ (VIPP) techniques used in a cultural orientation workshop for relief workers in southern Sudan. The second study focuses on capacity building for local initiatives to control the spread of HIV/AIDS in Busia, Siaya and Suba districts, Kenya. The third study illustrates the use of Participatory Evaluation Process (PEP) in the mobilisation of coffee farmers in Gaitheri, Muranga District, Kenya. The fourth study displays an example of community mobilisation through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in the Chakol Divison of the Teso District in western Kenya. Finally the fifth case-study presents a participatory approach to family planning and HIV/AIDS management in Eldoret Town, Kenya. The processes of the five different participatory initiatives are each analysed and discussed and recommendations are made for future applications of these techniques on other projects.
Measuring participation: its use as a managerial tool for district health planners based on a case study in Tanzania
This paper looks specifically at how a framework that was developed to measure the level of community participation within district health projects can be implemented. The introductory section describes the evolution of the development of the framework designed by Rifkin et al in 1988. The framework basically centres on the identification of five main factors that Rifkin believed to most strongly influence the breadth of community participation. These were identified as: a) needs assessment b) leadership c) organisation d) resource mobilisation and e) management. The article goes on to describe how research was carried out to find out how health programme staff utilised the framework to assess community participation levels. A major reason for this research was to assess exactly how valuable a tool this framework is by asking project managers to apply it in their own specific contexts. The article gives a detailed description of the setting in which the research took place before discussing the study procedure in some detail and briefly reporting the results. The main strengths and weaknesses of the framework were highlighted and the implications of these findings discussed in some detail.
This paper examines participatory evaluation in projects of the NGO PLAN International in Senegal. Through brief case studies it compares the viability of PRA evaluations in urban and rural contexts, and reflects upon the extent to which the methods can be used to reach the least advantaged groups in the communities. A number of criteria are used in assessing PRA as an evaluation tool: limited dependence ono external facilitators; replicability; community 'buy-in' to the process; adaptability to local time constraints; broad participation; reliability of data; turn-around time from data collection to use. The author concludes that PRA is problematic in urban settings if a 'community' is assumed in the same way as in rural areas. Some aspects for improvement (e.g. need to be more focused, and to prevent it from being appropriated by certain groups to the exclusion of others) are discussed.
This volume aims to explore the role of participatory eveluation, with a focus on water and sanitation programmes. It draws on 15 years of experience in participatory development and tries to move beyond participatory planning to participatory monitoring and evaluation. Saustainability is discussed, in terms of equipment, human resources and institutional capacity. The concept of participatory evaluation is considered, and the potential for the use of participatory methods outlined, along with its characteristics, strenghts and pitfalls. Indicators, methods of monitoring and replicability should be considered for each project, including the 'what' exactly should be measured, and by 'whom'. Detailed examples in the water and sanitation context are given. It is important to be able to assess change over time, and participatory methods offer a way forward.
Divided into 4 regional and one worldwide section, this bibliography includes a wealth of material on all aspects of PRA. The first section, on Nepal, includes a number of titles in Nepali and includes publications by local organisations and Nepalese branches of international ones, as well as work within Nepal carried out by other agencies and individuals. For Nepal, there is a focus on forestry issues. In all sections, the subject matter covered ranges from forestry, agriculture, methodology, health, training, gender, women, evaluation, etc. The titles within each regional section are not ordered, but each item is described systematically. Articles are defined as thoeretical or practical, by region, by subject matter, classification, tools, a summary and key words.
Staff of the Nepal Health Development Project have designed a method of examining the relationship between the project's human resource development initiatives and the concrete outputs and outcomes that result. The method ('Process Evaluation') is a participatory method which focuses on the capacity building experience itself. PE allows the researchers to analyse the strengths and weaknesses inherent in a project/activity's design, and to analyse the external constraints and enablers that influence progress towards goals. To the extent that project beneficiaries and implementors design and carry out PE, the methodology is itself a tool for capacity building. The methodology has 4 characteristics: (i) use of a conceptual model around which to examine capacity building; (ii) reliance on participatory strategies; (iii) use of participatory appraisal techniques; (iv) a qualitative approach to indicator development and investigation. PE is described and explained in 4 sections, one devoted to each of the above characteristics. It is recognised that where there is participation, there is potential for conflict. The conceptual model provides a common reference point, and can be used to enhance participation in a diverse group. The evaluation exercise was used to help 'bridge the gap' between a number of distinct components of the organisation's work. The model was applied to each of these components and the results for each are presented. The final section presents lessons regarding the methodology learned through the evaluation process.
Integrating formal sample surveys and Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques: summary based on Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques and the monitoring and evaluation of IFAD projects in Sudan
This summary is based on a report written for the Monitoring and Evaluation Division of the IFAD, with the general objective of examining the use of RRA methods for M&E. That report proposes a taxonomy of survey/RRA techniques and methods, which can be regarded as "a menu", thereby allowing choices to fit the precise needs of the user of information and institutional context. As such, the author argues, RRAs and formal surveys can be mixed to great effect. The criteria for such a taxonomy is outlined in this paper, as is a summary table of the main RRA techniques. The lessons from case study RRAs discussed in the original report are mostly positive, confirming "the value of weaving an RRA in to existing data" and showing how a low cost M&E system could be built on this. This is a useful and stimulating report with some clear summary diagrams and an extensive bibliography.