Bangladesh Reality Check 2008: listening to poor people's realities about primary healthcare and primary education
Photovoice is the process by which people use photography to record and reflect their lives from their own point of view. Through doing this their collective knowledge about community issues is increased and used to inform policy makers and the broader society about issues of greatest concern and pride to them with the aim of bringing about change. In this case study from rural China women involved in a community health project used photovoice to evaluate project activities. The way in which photovoice can contribute to a community's ability to reflect its own culture is discussed.
This article briefly introduces PRA and presents an example of its application to the evaluation of maternal and child health services in a small village in rural China. Following a wealth ranking, discussions with women were held concerning their utilisation of formal health services. The available health services were mapped and reasons for seeking treatment from different providers were expressed in the map. Matrix scoring elicited womenÆs evaluation of various maternal and child health service programmes, the most common sources of health information, and options for childbirth.
This is a longer version of the paper by Lily in Koning (ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Participatory Research in Health Promotion (1994). The paper outlines the background to the evolving Women's Development Project (WDP) in Bangladesh. It focuses on a health education component of the project, and gives an example of community mapping in a Bangladeshi village, conducted with village-based volunteer health educators (VHEs). The process of the exercise is reported, as are the reactions of the VHEs. The mapping exercise led to a discussion of the achievements and challenges faced, illustrating the potential role of mapping in enabling women to look at their own work in a new way. Other potential uses of PRA in the WDP are listed.
Section seven of this workshop report focuses specifically on M&E and Project Benefit M&E (PBME). The introduction to this section lists some of the shortcomings, or 'weaknesses', of a "conventional" M&E program and then highlights some of the main 'potential contributions' from RRA methodologies for M&E activities. These include; increasing the cost effectiveness of data collection in areas such as cropping calendars, labour profiles, and crop and input prices; helping in determining cropping parameters and; improving the effectiveness monitoring through the use of diagnostic surveys. In the second section, Mick Howes explores the uses of RRA methodologies to evaluate NGO projects. Using the example of the preliminary study of an irrigation tank renovation project in Sri Lanka, the author provides a useful account of an evaluation approach which employs some RRA methods in determining 'the context', 'the impact, 'project the system' of the NGO's intervention. Methods included mapping techniques, group interviews and household case studies. In the concluding discussion, the author suggests points in which RRA methods may be further employed to improve both the case study evaluation and other participatory forms of evaluation of NGO projects.
The Lesotho Primary Schools Sanitation Project, undertaken in 1976-9, had limited success. When a follow-up project was proposed, it was decided to hold workshops to find out the communities' views on how the follow-up should be designed. Workshop participants included school and community representatives, ministerial and donor agency representatives. This paper describes the results of those workshops held in March 1981. Most of the report discusses technical implications of the workshop discussions. A final section discusses the role of community based workshops in development planning.