Community-Based Workshops for Evaluating and Planning Sanitation Programs: A Case Study of Primary Schools Sanitation in Lesotho
The Lesotho Primary Schools Sanitation Project, undertaken in 1976-9, had limited success. When a follow-up project was proposed, it was decided to hold workshops to find out the communities' views on how the follow-up should be designed. Workshop participants included school and community representatives, ministerial and donor agency representatives. This paper describes the results of those workshops held in March 1981. Most of the report discusses technical implications of the workshop discussions. A final section discusses the role of community based workshops in development planning.
Using Field Visits to Improve Family Planning, Health and Nutrition Program Quality, A Supervisor's Manual
This manual is primarily aimed at helping aid staff supervise in a way which deepens insight into local situations, is supportive of health workers, and is focused on improving the quality of service to the poor. The checklists of questions are intended to be adapted rather than definitively applied. This manual gives practical advice on avoiding the pomp and ceremony of visits which often distracts from appreciating the health situation at community level. RRA techniques are recommended in order to gain a real understanding of health needs. Suggestions are made as to how to talk with health/nutrition workers to get an idea of their integration into the community, their understanding of health in a wider context, recent training, ability to question the health messages that they deliver and the extent of supervisory support. The author then recommends that an attempt is made to decide which problems relate to an individual and which are systemic problems that need to be addressed at the centre or state level. An Annex is included of a sample field visit report.
This lengthy and detailed document represents a summarised report of the second Internal Evaluation of an ongoing Fourth phase implementation of the above named project in Bangladesh. The objective of this evaluation was both to assess the progress
of the project and to test some new methodological approaches that had been applied in order to further strengthen grassroots participation. The methods utilised were mostly PRA and they were applied at the beneficiary level. The emphasis was laid on the potentials of the participants to evaluate the present situation and outline realistic future options. The document is split into six major chapters which in turn outline the Terms of Reference, a discussion of the principles of PRA and a short introduction to the methods applied. Chapter three presents the executive summary which leads to a more extensive discussion of the findings in Chapter four. The observers comments and recommendations are used to draw some conclusions applicable for the on-going fourth phase implementation and for the planning of a fifth phase. The last chapter includes some appendices of the basic orientation and
results from the evaluation. A bibliography is added at the back.
'Before we were sleeping, now we are awake': preliminary evaluation of the stepping stones sexual health programme in The Gambia
Community based behavioural interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviour have yet to be shown to be effective in the developing world. Stepping Stones is a participatory STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection)/HIV prevention workshop programme based on empowerment techniques, which have been adapted to an infertility prevention framework in Gambia. This paper describes a preliminary evaluation in 2 villages where the intervention was carried out compared to 2 control villages. Methods used include: participatory evaluation; in-depth interviews; focus groups discussions; a knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire administered to a random sample of 25% of the adult population; and monitoring of condom supply. The structure of the evaluation is based on the themes derived from the qualitative data. The infertility prevention approach made it possible to overcome resistance to discussing the topics of sexual and reproductive health. An atmosphere of trust was created and men were persuaded to participate in the programme as they felt that their own needs were being addressed. Participants enjoyed the programme and found the content relevant. Knowledge of the modes of transmission of HIV and STIs and levels of risk awareness increased. The value of condoms in particular situations was recognised: for sex before marriage, within marriage (when the woman is breast-feeding) and with non-marital partners. Women reported that they would insist on condom use outside marriage and even ask their husbands to use condoms for non-marital sex. Condom monitoring data suggested that condom uptake had increased. It was reported that there was significant increase in dialogue within marriage with the consequence that there were fewer disagreements and incidents of domestic violence. Diffusion of the messages of Stepping Stones appeared to have taken place with non-participants including children.