This paper reports on research carried out on the use and effectiveness of participatory materials on child health, which were developed at community workshops, by the Kumasi Health Education Project in Ghana.
A high degree of satisfaction with the new materials was reported by teachers and health workers who had been trained in the new materials, when asked to carry out self-reporting questionnaire. This was found to contrast with the results of focus-group discussions of mothers attending well baby clinics, at home, in market places and with pupils at school who reported a low level of exposure to the new materials, although those who had been exposed to them were satisfied with them and recalled the messages well.
The contributions of academics and practioners from Africa, Asia, Latin America, the USA and Europe, are extended versions of a selection of papers presented at the International Symposium on Participatory Research in Helath Promotion, Liverpool 17-21 September 1993.
Local leaders in south eastern Bolivia identified a rapid decline in the number of traditional healers (payes) and concluded that their indigenous health system was at risk. They commissioned an appraisal of indigenous health knowledge to improve understanding and come up with a plan of action. The article describes the methodology used, including how the people moved from analysis to action plans, and also some of the outcomes of the exercise.
Participatory research into HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk perception and sexual behaviour among immigrants and sex workers in Malaysia.
This document comprises of a plan for participatory research work to explore the isssues of HIV with immigrants and sexual health workers. Methods to be used include daily listing, focus group discussions and life histories. The paper includes a section explaining why these methods have been chosen rather than questionnaires.
Participatory research into health and related needs of residents in Efaye, New Hanover, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
This paper is a report on an assessment of health and related needs as experienced and perceived by residents in Efaye, a rural community in the New Hanover area, KwaZulu-Natal. It was carried out in association with the New Hanover Primary Health Care and Development Programme, which aims to promote healthy villages and improve primary health care in local communities. Following a three day training course the research team worked with local residents to represent and analyse issues such as perceptions of health and well-being, access to health services, why people use different health services, perceptions of health problems and priority needs for action and ideas for action plans. Planning for action and further research remain in process. This assessment represents the beginning of a planned ongoing process of participatory research and action by other rural communities in the New Hanover Health District.
Community assessment and planning for maternal and child health programs : a particpatory approach in Ethiopia
Summary report of a community health needs assessment carried out in five communities in Ethiopia. Government health staff and community members were involved in identifying and prioritising maternal and child health problems and planning for actions to help solve them. A limited number of maternal and child health behaviours that are critical to the prevention and management of the most important causes of childhood morbidtiy and mortality were used as a focus to guide planning. An integrated household survey was then used to measure the indicators of those behaviours.
Brief report on the methodology and findings of a research project carried out to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the lives of children on a commercial farm. The coping mechanisms used by families and children of both AIDs and non-AIDs affected families were investigated and also the pathways of vulnerability to HIV/AIDs infection. The roles of eduation, the AIDS awareness campaigns and economic insecurity in increasing vulnerability were considered.
A child centred approach to investigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on the family : a methodological study.
Report of research supported by Save the Children Fund (UK) that piloted research techniques, for use with children to understand the psychological, social and economic dimensions of the impact on them and their families of HIV/AIDS.
A need exists for food security indicators, for use in targeting food security programs, to be both simple to derive and use. This document reports on research to develop such alternative indicators which combined both quantitative and qualitative approaches for identifying indicators of poverty, food insecurity and undernutrition. Participatory rural appraisal techniques and ethnographic case studies were used to identify locally determined indicators of food insecurity.
Methods on the move : a review of the veterinary uses of participatory approaches and methods focussing on experiences in dryland Africa
In this literature review, the author, in describing the origins of participatory approaches and methods, discusses their application in animal health services and research in developing countries. The focus is on dryland areas of Africa particularly pastoral and agropastoral areas of the Greater Horn of Africa. The author reports that most experiences with veterinary uses of participatory approaches and methods remains with community based animal health projects and have proved to be more effective in comparison to more conventional approaches to service delivery. He also contends that while participatory methods are being used increasingly by epidemiologists, in general, there is a continued reliance on conventional survey tools such as questionnaires. He is of the view that as veterinary epidemiology has a history of borrowing from other disciplines it may be helpful to consider participatory methods including quantitative and qualitative perspectives and enhance the understanding of animal health and well being.
This working paper provides an evaluation and a critique of participatory research, specifically in the field of social sciences and agronomy (Agriculture, Nutrition, Alimentation). Reviewing the relevant literature, it summarises the basic participatory methodologies and investigates the limits of participatory research. The potential participatory research offers to the CRDI is brought forwards, notably as regards project evaluation.
Ce document de groupe de travail fournit une Úvaluation et une critique de la recherche participative, et ce spÚcifiquement dans les sciences sociales et l'agronomie (Agriculture, Nutrition, Alimentation). Passant en revue la littÚrature sur la recherche participative et sur son origine, ce document rÚsume les mÚthodologies participatives fondamentales et souligne leurs limites. Les implications de la recherche participative pour le CRDI sont mises en avant, notamment leurs apport en termes d'Úvaluation de projets.
This report documents the development of a project by the International Community of Women living with HIV/AIDS (ICW) encouraging HIV positive women in Zimbabwe to share and document their own experiences of living with HIV, particularly in relation to their sexual and reproductive health and needs. They wanted to lead their own research, own the process and gain skills to advocate for their own health and that of their families and communities. This project was seen as a model of partnership between positive women and researchers; positive women and those who are negative or untested; and positive women and community leaders and health care workers. The participants in the study showed that an HIV diagnosis has an impact on every aspect of women's lives and that there is a great need for emotional, medical, financial and social support in order for families and communities to better cope with the impact of HIV. The report particularly highlights the importance of peer support and coming together in groups to share experiences, build confidence and learn from one another.