The purpose of a topical RRA is to answer specific questions on a subject and it does so by employing a variety of RRA methods: secondary data review, semi -structured interviewing, direct observation and workshops. An investigation of the prevailing low sugarcane yields in Fiji was used to design a general structure for combining these methods in the process of a topical RRA. It also aimed to develop models (diagrammatic representations) which could be produced within this structure of methods, to be used in the planning and implementation of future topical RRAs. The working framework aims to provide practical guidelines for its practitioners and help formalise the composition of topical RRA.
This document reports on an RRA conducted in the Upper Mille and Cheleka catchments development project in Wollo province, Ethiopia. Its goals were (i) to test the applicability of RRA to the work of the Ethiopian Red Cross Society, and (ii) to analyse two peasant associations and suggest possible innovations to benefit their members. This introduction outlines a form of RRA known as agroecosystem analysis (AEA). Its methods and procedure of implementation are described: sub-groups examined diversification in space through mapping, transects, and analysing home gardens, and diversification in time through seasonal calendars. A second section examines the importance of diversification for security, improvement of production and purchasing power, and to act as a catalyst for overall development. The results of the RRA's in two peasant associations comprise the bulk of the report. For each, key issues are identified (e.g. land use, water resources, livestock, crops, health, forest resources), and strategies for diversification are examined (e.g. irrigation, land use patterns, revegetation, experimenting with new crops, clean water supply, development of home gardens, reforestation, credit etc.). The report ends with comments on the use of RRA in development planning and the role of RRA in developing management concepts and process in peasant associations.
This paper examines the problem of finding measurements for the two major principles of primary health care (PHC): equity and participation. However, attention is focused on the assessment of participation. A methodology is presented to define indicators for assessing participation in health care programmes. It sets out to provide a process-oriented framework for those involved in PHC programmes to describe participation in their programme and, upon that basis, to plan their future actions. It is based on premise that broader participation is achieved by developing a wider range of activities. The paper is divided into five parts. The first section reviews past efforts in measuring PHC by frameworks besides those which only examine the improvement in health status and in measuring participation. The second section discusses the conceptual framework for assessing participation, while the next section elaborates on the analytical framework. Part four presents the methodology. The development of process indicators is critical to the understanding of health improvements and community participation. These indicators will help demonstrate whether participation ôhas become narrower, broader, or remained unchangedö, along a continuum that will establish a baseline for comparison. Five factors or indicators said to influence participation are 1) leadership, 2) organisation, 3) resource mobilisation, 4) management, and 5) needs assessment. Part five describes a case study of rural health programmes in Nepal using the analysis. The paper includes an appendix of questions suggesting how indicators might be identified.
This paper presents the results of an international workshop convened to examine verbal autopsy methods with the goal of achieving a consensus on methodological approaches. A verbal autopsy is an interview designed to identify specific medical syndromes, using information about the terminal illness elicited from relatives of the deceased person. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties of cause-specific mortality of children in developing countries.
This long and detailed study describes how the mandal (administrative area) of Devikere in Jagalar, Karnataka State was selected as the appropriate site for an Action Aid anti-poverty project. A socio-economic survey was conducted by a multi-disciplinary team using mainly RRA techniques. The methodology employed appears to have much in common with farming systems research. A section of the report is devoted to health issues. This includes: nutrition and food availability; mother and child wellbeing, health practices and beliefs; the environment; housing; occupation and health services. The anthropological/ethnographic technique of using case studies of individuals adds a strong human dimension to the study. Separate sections are devoted to women, infrastructure and sanitation, and socio-economic conditions.
An exploratory study in Parbhani, a rural community of the western dryland region of India, assessed community nutrition problems using RRA to assess the broad causes of malnutrition. The total study period was nine months. The survey team used public transport, often conducting just two interviews a day. Through open-ended surveys and focus group discussions, in-depth information was obtained on agricultural patterns, food habits, food storage and marketing practices, infant-feeding practices, and cultural beliefs and taboos. Secondary data was analysed. The study concludes by making recommendations for further research.
Section seven of this workshop report focuses specifically on M&E and Project Benefit M&E (PBME). The introduction to this section lists some of the shortcomings, or 'weaknesses', of a "conventional" M&E program and then highlights some of the main 'potential contributions' from RRA methodologies for M&E activities. These include; increasing the cost effectiveness of data collection in areas such as cropping calendars, labour profiles, and crop and input prices; helping in determining cropping parameters and; improving the effectiveness monitoring through the use of diagnostic surveys. In the second section, Mick Howes explores the uses of RRA methodologies to evaluate NGO projects. Using the example of the preliminary study of an irrigation tank renovation project in Sri Lanka, the author provides a useful account of an evaluation approach which employs some RRA methods in determining 'the context', 'the impact, 'project the system' of the NGO's intervention. Methods included mapping techniques, group interviews and household case studies. In the concluding discussion, the author suggests points in which RRA methods may be further employed to improve both the case study evaluation and other participatory forms of evaluation of NGO projects.
This report presents the results of a PRA focusing on natural resources management in Kenya. It contains descriptions of historical background on the locality, natural resources, water and soil conservation, agricultural practices, discussions of key social issues and infrastructure (health and education) and analysis of institutions and local leadership. Problems and opportunities are identified, and a village resource management plan was devised. Action by the community and other actors as a result of the PRA is discussed, and some problems in implementation are noted. The report ends with reflections on PRA and the participatory planning process. Positive reflections include enabling the community to undertake their own analysis, promoting an integrated view of development, and development of the village plan. Problems included insufficient participation by marginal groups and by women, and the feeling that PRA is inappropriate to statistical analysis.
In the West African nation of Togo mid-level health workers are being routinely trained to conduct focus-group interviews with mothers of children under five. The intent is to establish qualitative data bases that complement conventional survey data. The authors document the findings of a five-day training programme during which health workers collected data from 81 focus groups (324 mothers). Two unanticipated effects emerged: firstly that the focus group method democratized data gathering by forcing health workers out of their perceived roles as experts and teachers; secondly that by stimulating this shift in roles community competence was enhanced, thereby promoting collaborative programme planning by health workers and target villages. Evidence is given that focus-group discussions paved the way for highly successful education campaigns which dramatically increased child vaccination rates.