A theoretical framework for data-economising appraisal procedures with applications to rural development planning
The paper's objective is to construct a general framework which will increase the useful data, while reducing the cost of data collection in developing countries. The search for useful principles proceeds from the economics of information, via Karl Popper's principle of error reduction, and the use of information cybernetics in public decision-making, to the design of more cost-effective models of development processes, and the significance of alternative hierarchical administrative structures for the utility obtained from primary data. These components are combined into a unified logical framework. An integrated approach to management information is identified as a desirable adjunct for its application in practice.
The author argues the need to include women's issues in an RRA, since "analysis of likely or actual "before" and "after" situations are less obvious for women than for men". The "tarmac bias" is more significant for women than for men, so the RRA approach can offer significant gains. The article outlines how the RRA process can explore women's issues, but stresses the danger of "compartmentalising them" within the eventual overall report.
This article is the last in a series of four. Each looks at one step in the evaluation and planning process: description, investigation, analysis and decision (see Kenyon 1983). Participation in all steps is the ideal. This paper looks at decision. Three sections look at decisions about changes to address needs or problems; strategy decisions and deciding among alternative strategies; and evaluation decisions, or the measurement of results against objectives. Examples are drawn from projects in a number of countries, illustrating processes of community participation in decision making and the use of visual representations in assisting the making of decisions.
Rapid Rural Appraisal strategies for collecting and analysing data: Papua New Guinea Export Tree Crops Study
This paper establishes models for the collection and analysing of data for the Papua New Guinea Tree Crops Study. Four schemes of rural data collection are distinguished: pure monitoring; research for large-scale projects; research that is participatory and small-scale; and, research that strikes a balance btween the second and third schemes. The paper states that the Papua New Guinea Export Tree Crops Study requires characteristics from all of these schemes and attempts to provide a sythesis of "top down" and "bottom up" approaches for this study.
Examines the distinction between tree and land tenure, and the significance of this for forestry and other development projects. The use of rapid appraisals is discussed, with a range of techniques from the use of secondary documents and exisitng legal systems, to the discovery of informal rights. Discusses the sensitivity of tenure information, and importance of individual and group interviews, and sketch maps. The emphasis is on the importance of rights, particularly women's rights, to trees and tree products. Tenure rights may vary between individual holdings, the commons (where community rights and organisations are important) and Forest reserves. Predominantly RRA, even some questionaire use.
Report from a community woodland resource management project run by ENDA (Environment and Development Activities), Zimbabwe. A workshop was held to identify key concerns, their solutions and any constraints which were then all worked into a piece of theatre which would expose conflict over trees. The play was then used to stimulate discussion in a community workshop. Community members were given questions to discuss and dramatise as short sketches. Through this process, participants identified more closely with the issues raised and were more motivated to tackle them. Minimal external direction was needed for this workshop.
This is a landmark paper which firstly provides an important backdrop to the huge growth of literature on PE over the last four years, and secondly, reviews stages in the PE process as seen by five authors writing in the 1980s (in the annex). The author makes the fundamental point that true, or "active", PE means the involvement of all stakeholders in the process of PE (most PE he observes is "passive" whereby the people are only listened to, and not truly involved). Active PE would entail members of the community controlling the evaluation process by, for example, being the interviewers [a technique that now forms a useful tool in PRA based evaluations]. Many of the questions and issues raised in this report are still highly relevant today. For example, the author's conclusion that the very process behind "active PEs" could mean that running of the overall project is improved, provides sound justification for the current drive towards incorporating PRA methods into PM&E of development projects.
This draft paper provides a useful discussion of some of the main analytical and theoretical themes surrounding the concept of participation in connection with evaluation of development activities [N.B it does not look specifically at methods]. Comparing the 'mode of evaluation' characterising 'conventional development projects' with that of the emerging set of 'participatory evaluation' approaches, the author builds a workable framework through which he can ask the key questions concerning "why, when, and how" participation in project evaluation should occur. In answering these questions, emphasis is put on the development of an approach in which both internal (or participatory) and external methods of evaluation are seen to be complementary. Importantly, however, such a framework can only truly work if long term, local level, participation is seen occur through the entire project cycle; only then argues the author, can 'participatory evaluation methods' realize their full potential.