A theoretical framework for data-economising appraisal procedures with applications to rural development planning
The paper's objective is to construct a general framework which will increase the useful data, while reducing the cost of data collection in developing countries. The search for useful principles proceeds from the economics of information, via Karl Popper's principle of error reduction, and the use of information cybernetics in public decision-making, to the design of more cost-effective models of development processes, and the significance of alternative hierarchical administrative structures for the utility obtained from primary data. These components are combined into a unified logical framework. An integrated approach to management information is identified as a desirable adjunct for its application in practice.
The author argues the need to include women's issues in an RRA, since "analysis of likely or actual "before" and "after" situations are less obvious for women than for men". The "tarmac bias" is more significant for women than for men, so the RRA approach can offer significant gains. The article outlines how the RRA process can explore women's issues, but stresses the danger of "compartmentalising them" within the eventual overall report.
Community-Based Workshops for Evaluating and Planning Sanitation Programs: A Case Study of Primary Schools Sanitation in Lesotho
The Lesotho Primary Schools Sanitation Project, undertaken in 1976-9, had limited success. When a follow-up project was proposed, it was decided to hold workshops to find out the communities' views on how the follow-up should be designed. Workshop participants included school and community representatives, ministerial and donor agency representatives. This paper describes the results of those workshops held in March 1981. Most of the report discusses technical implications of the workshop discussions. A final section discusses the role of community based workshops in development planning.
This article is the last in a series of four. Each looks at one step in the evaluation and planning process: description, investigation, analysis and decision (see Kenyon 1983). Participation in all steps is the ideal. This paper looks at decision. Three sections look at decisions about changes to address needs or problems; strategy decisions and deciding among alternative strategies; and evaluation decisions, or the measurement of results against objectives. Examples are drawn from projects in a number of countries, illustrating processes of community participation in decision making and the use of visual representations in assisting the making of decisions.
Rapid Rural Appraisal strategies for collecting and analysing data: Papua New Guinea Export Tree Crops Study
This paper establishes models for the collection and analysing of data for the Papua New Guinea Tree Crops Study. Four schemes of rural data collection are distinguished: pure monitoring; research for large-scale projects; research that is participatory and small-scale; and, research that strikes a balance btween the second and third schemes. The paper states that the Papua New Guinea Export Tree Crops Study requires characteristics from all of these schemes and attempts to provide a sythesis of "top down" and "bottom up" approaches for this study.
This paper defines agroecosystems and examines the variety of strategies used to create such a system such as productivity, stability, sustainability and equitability. It states that agricultural development involves a trade-off between these properties. It demonstrates this through selected examples from agricultual history, including the origins of agriculture, manorial and modern Western agriculture and the Green Revolution in Indonesia. It is suggested that these properties may be used normatively as combined criteria for evaluating the performance of agricultural development programmes and projects.