A comprehensive introduction to both RRA and PRA, with extensive bibliography and lists of contacts at the end. The first chapter focuses on the theory, with sections on the nature of RRA and PRA, the key concepts involved, the special prerequisites for carrying out "PRA", and the potentials and applications as well as limitations of this type of process. This is a fairly comprehensive analysis which includes two case studies. The second section discusses how PRA can be incorporated into projects, particularly GTZ, and includes related approaches such as diagnosis and design, participatory research and ethnography. Finally, individual tools, as well as approaches such as "handing over the stick" are outlined, with hints and helpful literature. General sequencing is suggested, and for each method a "point in time" gives an indication of when particular tools can be used. The fact that tools are only one component of a "PRA" is mentioned.
This book is a guide to a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods for research and practice. It examines the concept of participation and ethical considerations in fieldwork, and stresses methodological pluralism and dialogue in development planning. The main part of the book is devoted to participatory methods. It discusses techniques such as ranking and scoring, mapping and diagrams, and the use of indicators, focus groups and semi- structured interviews in poverty and gender analysis. Participatory monitoring and evaluation and sustainability analysis are also discussed.
Based on the premise that 'people are at the centre of an experiential learning and growth process', this manual provides a look at the key concepts and issues defining participatory evaluation; a design framework; sample indicators, tools and other resources; and finally, includes a section on training and sample techniques for extending the work of self-evaluation to project staff and community. Although, the manual does not include up-to-date information on PRA methodological innovations (it is the result of a workshop carried out in 1986) the participatory model presented does constitute a well balanced basic approach to PM&E. In addition, the manual is well organized and easy to use and, as such could form a useful reference base from which to structure and planning a participatory evaluation exercise.
Matrix ranking was used to evaluate rice varieties, which had been grown on trial plots. The first ranking compared 50 varieties, with several criteria, using fixed scoring with beans. The second only ranked 13 varieties, this time using pieces of coloured card. This worked better, mainly because there were fewer varieties. A great deal of discussion was generated, consensus was often reached, and the potential of ranking as a tool for monitoring and evaluation was confirmed.
This article presents the very interesting history of a government agency which has adopted participatory procedures to mobilise communities for resource conservation. It starts with a brief history of soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. The inability of conventional approaches led to the adoption of the Catchment Approach by the Soil and Water Conservation Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture. In this approach, conservation efforts are concentrated in a specified catchment for a limited period of time. It has changed over time to include a high level of community participation in the analysis of their own conservation problems and in deciding what to do. Participation can take many forms and the article discusses how interactive participation is achieved. A survey of the impact of the Catchment Approach showed the greater effect of interactive as opposed to consultative participation. The success of the Catchment Approach has also been a result of institutional factors which support increased use of participatory methods.
The ActionAid pilot projects linking literacy and PRA (see ActionAid, 1994) are soon to be evaluated. As empowerment is one of the central objectives of the new approach, a key issue is how do we measure empowerment? Matrices and semi-structured interviews form the basis of the evaluation which will be developed with the literacy learners. For example, matrices to measure community actions initiated through the literacy programme, participation of women in household decisions and children's education.
The paper reviews experiences of participatory planning with pastoralists. It looks at the specific needs of pastoral planning and discusses how planning with pastoralists differs from that in agricultural settings. The paper also discusses some of the problems and limitations of participatory planning, and some of the ethical issues raised in the process. It concludes that most RRA/PRA methods can be useful in planning with pastoralists if applied in a flexible way. However, some concepts used in planning with settled farmers are not suited to mobile herders. Planning with pastoralists requires an approach oriented to social rather than territorial units.
Staff of the Nepal Health Development Project have designed a method of examining the relationship between the project's human resource development initiatives and the concrete outputs and outcomes that result. The method ('Process Evaluation') is a participatory method which focuses on the capacity building experience itself. PE allows the researchers to analyse the strengths and weaknesses inherent in a project/activity's design, and to analyse the external constraints and enablers that influence progress towards goals. To the extent that project beneficiaries and implementors design and carry out PE, the methodology is itself a tool for capacity building. The methodology has 4 characteristics: (i) use of a conceptual model around which to examine capacity building; (ii) reliance on participatory strategies; (iii) use of participatory appraisal techniques; (iv) a qualitative approach to indicator development and investigation. PE is described and explained in 4 sections, one devoted to each of the above characteristics. It is recognised that where there is participation, there is potential for conflict. The conceptual model provides a common reference point, and can be used to enhance participation in a diverse group. The evaluation exercise was used to help 'bridge the gap' between a number of distinct components of the organisation's work. The model was applied to each of these components and the results for each are presented. The final section presents lessons regarding the methodology learned through the evaluation process.
This paper examines a participatory procedure of self-assessment of irrigation system performance by farmers in the Philippines. The procedure was aimed at improving system performance through strengthening irrigators associations' (IA) managerial capacity in planning and decision making regarding operation and maintenance, communication and conflict resolution. The assessment was part of a longer intervention to organize farmers in small groups based on water and task distribution. The first phase involved self-assessment by the original groups of the process of organizing smaller groups and catalysing collective action. In one-day workshops, farmers used symbols and maps to assess the situation. The second phase used a self-assessment questionnaire filled out monthly by IA group leaders, to assess their own performance in a range of management tasks. The experiment showed that participatory self-assessment was quite successful in eliciting candid appraisals of the existing situation. Pictorial analysis was a learning experience in which farmers identified unexpected causes of problems. These problems lay within the farmers' ability to resolve them, so the assessment facilitated follow-up actions to address them, which are listed in a table.
This is a longer version of the paper by Lily in Koning (ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Participatory Research in Health Promotion (1994). The paper outlines the background to the evolving Women's Development Project (WDP) in Bangladesh. It focuses on a health education component of the project, and gives an example of community mapping in a Bangladeshi village, conducted with village-based volunteer health educators (VHEs). The process of the exercise is reported, as are the reactions of the VHEs. The mapping exercise led to a discussion of the achievements and challenges faced, illustrating the potential role of mapping in enabling women to look at their own work in a new way. Other potential uses of PRA in the WDP are listed.
This is a summary of a larger study for the World Bank of loans for rural development to Brazil. Programme evaluations shed more light on the causes of failure than of success. This summary seeks to do the opposite. The projects are introduced and problems summarised. The remainder of the article discusses the causes of success in some regions and in some periods. Factors include 'inherent capabilities', flexibility, innovation, simplicity, co -ordination between agencies, control by higher authorities, involvement of non-specialised agencies. The implications for standard project design are discussed. Five points summarise the conclusions, and it is emphasised that reality is unpredictable.
People, realities, negotiations and other love songs: some thoughts on participatory monitoring and evaluation, development cooperation and funding organisations
Brief critical evaluation and discussion of PRA and especially participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) drawing from experience in the Philippines. Covers ethical, social and institutional issues offering a valid critique of the institutionalisation of PRA and PME.
This is part of the World BankÆs æParticipation SourcebookÆ. It discusses the participatory approach adopted in World Bank projects, and the problems and lessons that can be learnt. It focuses on the following areas of concern: a. Challenges for the water and sanitation sector; b. Issues involved in working with governments; c. What is involved in designing stakeholder participation; and d. Identifying and securing institutional arrangements for participation and project delivery.
Can Participatory Evaluation Meet the Needs of all Stakeholders? A Case Study: evaluating the World Neighbors West Africa Program
Participatory techniques are being used to a greater or lesser degree and in a variety of ways by more and more evaluators. This case study is a description of the methodology used during the participatory evaluation the author facilitated of the World Neighbors programmes in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Togo and Mali). During the one-week evaluation process in each of three programme sites a variety of participatory techniques were used, including PRA with villagers, focus group discussions, interviews with community leaders, roundtable discussions with representatives of other agencies working in the local area etc. But, did this process meet the needs of all stakeholders? At the village level participants gained new perspectives on the effect of the programme on their lives. The programme staff learned how to improve monitoring, routine evaluation, analysis and reporting. At the Area-wide Strategic Planning Conference, ideas and recommendations from the evaluation process shaped new action plans. Hence, the author argues the effectiveness of a community development programme should be measured in terms of how it influences decision-making by all stake-holders with responsibility for future plans.
The review aims to look in depth at the Mozambican refugee programme in Zimbabwe in order to draw lessons from this experience to guide other programmes and to assess to what extent the programme has prepared people to return to Mozambique. The first section outlines the programme and the methods used during this review, which include several PRA tools such as mapping, institutional diagrams and ranking. The second section discusses community structures and participation, activities and projects, health programmes, repatriation, needs assessment and resettlement. For each of these subjects, there is a short analysis followed by a summary of the main issues. Key recommendations to both Helpage International and Mozambique are also given for each subject and synthesised at the end.