Annotated reference list on participatory monitoring and evaluation for NRSP (DFID) project managers
This document is an annotated reference list on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation for Natural Resources Systems Programme (NRSP) Project Managers. The annotated references have been grouped into the following five categories: A: Overview of (P) M&E, B: Indicators, C: Methods, D: Case Studies and E: Generic M&E Websites. For easy access the references have been organised in a table in line with these categories and include details of thematic focus and keywords. Each reference has been coded A-E and then ranked according to relevance to the NRSP audience. The annotations are listed at the end of the document in alphabetical order by author with code.
La participaci¾n se ha transformado en un concepto crÝtico del desarrollo, cada vez mßs usado en la planificaci¾n y la ejecuci¾n de los programas de desarrollo. Este libro toma la participaci¾n un paso mßs adelante y explora su utilizaci¾n en el seguimiento y evaluaci¾n de esos programas. Reuniendo una amplia gama de estudios de caso (12 en total) y discusiones entre practicantes, acadÚmicos, donantes y elaboradores de polÝticas, este libro explora los aspectos conceptuales, metodol¾gicos, institucionales y polÝticos del seguimiento y evaluaci¾n participativos (SyEP). En el mismo se sintetizan los temas y experiencias comunes en SyEP para mostrar los desafÝosù y los amplios beneficiosù de este enfoque. La Parte 1 proporciona un panorama general del SyEP, sÝntesis de investigaciones bibliogrßficas y revisiones regionales de su prßctica en todo el mundo. La Parte 2 presenta estudios de caso que ilustran la variedad de escenarios y contextos en los cuales el SyEP estß siendo aplicado. La Parte 3 analiza los temas clave y los desafÝos identificados en los estudios de caso y en las discusiones de los talleres y propone ßreas para las investigaciones y acciones futuras.|Participation has become a critical concept in development, increasingly employed in the planning and implementation of development programmes. This book takes participation one step further by exploring its use in the monitoring and evaluation of these programmes. Bringing together a broad range of case studies (12 in total) and discussions between practitioners, academics, donors and policy makers, the book explores conceptual, methodological, institutional and policy issues in participatory monitoring and evaluation. It distils the common themes and experiences in participatory monitoring and evaluation to show the challenges - and far-reaching benefits - of the approach. The book starts with a general overview of participatory monitoring and evaluation, followed by a synthesis of case studies and regional reviews of practice and methodological innovations around the globe in Part 1. Part 2 then presents case studies of learning with communities; these illustrate the diverse range of settings and contexts in which participatory monitoring and evaluation is being applied. Part 3 raises the key issues and challenges for participatory monitoring and evaluation, including the need for changing institutions. The book concludes by way of proposing areas for future research and action.
This article presents a number of contributions from an e-forum debate on issues of accountability and transparency in Deliberative and Inclusionary Processes which grew out of a citizen jury and scenario workshop in southern India. It is based around the questions:|Who decides to whom and for whom citizen jury processes are accountable?|How can such participatory processes by used to hold government departments, donor agencies, and other actors more accountable, and make policies and policy processes more responsive to the needs and priorities of poor people?
Reflections on the e-forum and Prajateerpu report by the UK Department for International Development, India
This article presents a response by DFID-India to the Prajateerpu report and the e-forum which discussed its findings, in which the organisation is implicated as having acted callously in displacing large numbers of poor farmers from their lands and imposed policies and programmes that would adversely affect their livelihoods. It begins by outlining DFID's approach to tackling rural poverty and agricultural development, highlighting that it does not wholly endorse a highly industrialised approach, and that it recognises that complexities and difficulties associated with rural poverty. It then presents DFID's programme strategy and approach, stating the value placed on participation and consultation, and gives examples of interventions in Andrah Pradesh which poor people directly benefited from.
This article provides an overview of the commentaries received during the e-forum on Participatory Processes for Policy Change. Four areas are considered. Firstly, regarding issues of evidence, the debate raised important questions around the positivist versus more reflective views of knowledge in policy making. The second concerns issues of representation. Many actors emphasise the need for the poor to speak for themselves, but questions arise: who are the poor? And are their voices being heard? The third aspect looks at issues of engagement which seek to develop an alternative agenda, and represent a key challenge for deliberative processes. Lastly, issues of accountability are considered through the extent to which deliberative processes offer opportunities for holding the powerful to account. A concern here is whether adequately functioning accountability mechanisms are in place for people to hold stakeholders responsible.
Based on the author's own experience as head of a bilateral agency country office, the paper tells a story about how the donor community became engaged in a conflict about monitoring the Poverty Reduction Strategy. This experience is used to explore donors' involvement in political processes within aid-recipient countries. Their understanding of the national context and the quality of the relations that donor staff establish in the recipient country only partially explain the nature of their involvement. Because they are sustained over time and are not contingent on the country where a staff member happens to be working for a few years there are two other sets of non local relationships that may be more influential. These are membership of the global development cooperation community, of which the country specific donor community is a sub-set, and the relationships back home to the staff member's own country's history, institutions, values and practices. The interpretation of these sets of relations, and the action resulting from this, are mediated by an individual's own personal history and life experiences. Consciously situating oneself with respect to personal and institutional values and relationships would allow individual staff members in donor agencies to reflect upon and explore taken for granted assumptions about the way the world appears to them. It would help them work more comfortably and sensitively with the ambiguity, paradox and unanticipated outcomes that they encounter on a daily basis in their goal of reducing world poverty. The paper argues that greater reflexivity would help donor staff and their organisations become more skilled at supporting aid recipients in their efforts.
The lake Victoria Fisheries Research Project (LVFRP) developed a long term programme in order to get agreement on a plan for the co-management of the Lake Victoria's fisheries project. This article presents the second step in this process and looks at how participatory monitoring systems were initiated at Nkombe Beach in Uganda. It looks at the problems faced, the solutions tried, the monitoring indicators agreed and how this process was replicated in communities in Kenya and Tanzania. Finally it draws a number of conclusions, such as participation requires a two-way flow of information, participatory monitoring is a slow process, context is crucial and nothing goes to plan!
The international NGO, Concern Worldwide, decided to assess whether its Integrated Rural Development Projects (IRDP) are reaching the extreme poor. Dimla was chosen as a site for a participatory research study which asked two questions 1) Who are the extreme poor? and 2) Is Concern's Dimla project reaching the extreme poor effectively through its existing activities? This article presents the process and findings of this research. The research focuses on a category of extreme poor termed the 'helpless poor' and why they have not often been able to participate fully in the project. It concludes with key learnings and suggests a specifically targeted pro-extreme poor strategy is required.
The Red Seas Hills Programme (RSHP) team began working with Village Development Committees (VDC's) in the costal zone of Sudan in 1989. The VDC's plan, implement, and monitor a range of projects prioritised by each community. This article presents the process of a participatory mid-term evaluation by the team, external reviewers and the Beja communities. The articles describes these methods and looks at how the communities perceived the benefits of certain projects and to what wealth class. Each village evaluation culminated in a feedback workshop. The VDU's also assessed their own organisational capacities and the RSHP carried out their own assessment of the evaluation to contribute to its own learning and to that of the villagers with whom it worked. The article concludes by assessing the impact of the participatory evaluation and identifies PM & E as playing a key role in improving the performance of community organisations in managing development.
The World Bank-funded Uttar Pradesh Diversified Agriculture Support project (UPDASP) in India is supporting a Farming System Approach (FSA) in 32 districts of the state of Uttar Pradesh, with the major emphasis on natural resources management, employment generation, value addition and marketing. Training is an important part of the project for both farmers and field staff. This article shares experience gained during a participatory evaluation of the training provided under the project, and focuses particularly on describing the participatory tools specifically developed for the evaluation of this training rather than the outcomes. These tools include Card Sorting, Johari's window, the Learning Matrix, the Fishbone, Tree Mapping and Ranking. It concludes with lessons learnt and emphasises that the tools and techniques used in the evaluation made it clear to participants how effective participatory methodologies are, especially in the context of monitoring and evaluation.
Around the world a growing crisis of legitimacy characterises the relationship between citizens and the institutions that affect their lives. The project of defining, indeed of understanding, citizenship in Nigeria is seen by the authors of this Briefing as an engagement in a journey of disconnection between a primal conception of an indigenous sense of being and the notion of an entity beyond that confine of indigenousness. In response to this gap between citizens and their institutions, people are struggling to find new forms of citizenship, participation and accountability.
Working with communities across Nigeria, the Nigerian Popular Theatre Alliance (NPTA) and its research centre, the Theatre for Development Centre (TFDC) have sought to understand why the country, with vast assets in human and natural resources, remains a nation with millions of people suffering political exclusion, voicelessness and poverty. The research involves academic and civil society institutions in Nigeria, Mexico, Bangladesh, India, Brazil, South Africa and the UK. Through comparative and participatory research, it seeks to explore new forms of citizenship that help make rights real for poor people. This document is the first of the Briefings aimed at highlighting key policy issues for debate and possible action. It includes issues of ethnicity, gender, and religion as well as citizenship rights, government accountability, resource management and required changes in government policy. It was produced in conjunction with the Development Research Centre on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability at IDS, UK.
Around the world a growing crisis of legitimacy characterises the relationship between citizens and the institutions that affect their lives. In both north and south, citizens speak of mounting disillusionment with government, based on concerns about corruption, lack of responsiveness to the needs of the poor and the absence of a sense of connection with elected representatives and bureaucrats. In response to this gap between citizens and their institutions, people are struggling to find new forms of citizenship, participation and accountability.
To be meaningful, arguments for participation and accountability must become grounded in a conception for rights and citizenship which, in a development context, strengthens the status of citizens from one of beneficiaries of development to its rightful and legitimate claimants. While declarations on rights and citizenship are increasingly abundant, the gap between the rhetoric and reality remains large. And, while the principles of the rights-based approach are important, there is much to be understood about what it means, both conceptually and empirically, as well as much to learn about how to put it into practice. New understanding is needed of what it means to re-cast the debates of inclusion, participation and accountability in a rights-based and citizenship-centred mould. This volume, drawn together by a multidisciplinary group of scholars associated with the Theatre for Development Centre at Ahmadu Bello University, helps us to gain such an understanding. Combining multidisciplinary analysis with insightful and creative use of theatre to gain people's own perceptions, these essays offer important insights into the struggles for inclusive citizenship, participation and accountability in the Nigerian context.
The Access Initiative (TAI) has developed this interactive toolkit CD-ROM to stimulate national progress on the access to environmental decision-making. It provides over 100 indicators that civil society organizations can use to monitor government performance in implementing public participation in decisions that affect the environment. Twenty-five civil society organizations from nine countries pilot-tested the original methodology and helped TAI identify global standards for public participation and information. These universally applicable benchmarks help civil society coalitions identify ways that their countries can move toward compliance with global norms for access to information, participation and justice in environmental decision-making. The methodology specifically measures the following: comprehensiveness and quality of the general legal framework for access to information, participation, and justice; degree of available access to selected types of information about the environment; degree of public participation in decision-making processes in selected sectors by actors in the development process at various levels; the accessibility of justice, both redress and remedy; and comprehensiveness and quality of capacity building efforts to encourage informed and meaningful public participation. The CD-ROM includes an interactive database for recording research and a detailed "How-to" Guide that provides user-friendly instructions for all phases of the assessment, including assembling a coalition, launching a study, selecting cases and research methods, finalizing data, and using the findings to stimulate tangible results. Additional resources such as a glossary, Internet links, PDFs with TAC publications and other background information is also included.
This book reflects upon the introduction, implementation, and assessment of a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) training program in China. It documents a PM&E training process in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, China, illustrating how PM&E can strengthen the learning and accountability of research teams and, consequently, the effectiveness of their research work. The training programme was part of a the International Development Research CentreÆs community-based natural resource management programme, and involved the Kunming Institute of Botany and the Guizhou academy of Agricultural Sciences and Community-based Natural Resource Management. Some of the issues dealt with in the programme was watershed management; accessing and distributing water resources; natural resources management; and rural development. Through the proceedings of several workshops and practical experiences from the field, the book examines the processes of: learning by doing; building a common understanding; and PM&E. Using concrete examples, the book shows that it is not only what is being assessed that matters, but also who is doing the assessment and for whom the assessments are intended.