This bibliography was prepared for the Development Research Centre (DRC) on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability, a research network co-ordinated in the UK by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS). This DRC aims to include the voices of citizens into the debates around citizenship and contribute to the understanding of citizenship: the realities, challenges, and opportunities it poses for different people and the utilization of citizensÆ knowledge to develop strategies for change. The range of contemporary thinking around citizenship is reviewed in an essay included in the booklet. This provides a theoretical frame of reference for empirical work on the relationship between citizenship, participation and accountability. Also included is a section of references of recent texts that have been selected by the authors relating to citizenship, participation and accountability. Each one has a brief description.
This edition of the IDS Bulletin features papers by researchers and practitioners associated with the Development Research Centre on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability (Citizenship DRC), an international research partnership dedicated to exploring the new forms of citizenship which are needed to make rights real for poor people.|The Citizenship DRC brings together over 50 researchers from research institutions and civil society groups based in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa and the U.K. It encourages collaborative work across national, institutional and disciplinary boundaries. Researchers have formed thematic working groups, and each group has its own website to share experiences.|This issue is split into the following sections:|1. Meanings and Expressions of Rights and Citizenship: - Citizenship, Affiliation and Exclusion: Perspectives from the South - Agendas in Encountering Citizens in the Nigerian Context - Making Rights Real in Bangladesh through Collective Citizen Action - Citizenship, Science and Risk: Conceptualising Relationships across Issues and Settings|2. Concepts and Practices of Participation: - Locating Citizen Participation - Linking Citizenship, Participation and Accountability: A Perspective from PRIA - Deliberative Fora and the Democratisation of Social Policies in Brazil - Citizenship and the 'Right to Education': Perspectives from the Indian Context - Participation of Indigenous and Rural People in the Construction of Developmental and Environmental Public Policies in Mexico|3. Dimensions of Accountability: - From Responsibility to Citizenship? Corporate Accountability for Development - Who speaks for Whom? A look at civil society Accountability in Bioprospecting Debates in Mexico
This paper outlines Action Aid's work in progress in exploring the monitoring and evaluation issues related to the impact of advocacy work. It contains a framework for looking at these possible outcomes and impacts and explores some of the trade-offs inherent in advocacy and campaigning work. The author urges greater attention to power dynamics within and among civil society groups, in order to safeguard transparency, legitimacy, representation, and participation in decision making
Government rhetoric increasingly emphasises the importance of community participation in area regeneration programmes; however, it is far less clear how much those involved are able to effectively influence practice and future policy making. This report looks at ways of assessing levels of community involvement through an audit of participation, so that communities themselves can positively facilitate learning and dialogue for partners and partnerships. The handbook provides tools and appraisal exercises for measuring: the history and pattern of participation; the quality of participation strategies adopted by partners and partnerships; the capacity within partner organisations to support community participation; the capacity within communities to participate effectively; and the impact of participation and its outcomes. The handbook will be of interest to those involved in community-led regeneration groups, policy makers, local authorities and regional and national government, as well as anyone with an interest in community-led regeneration practice. A companion volume evaluating current levels of community involvement and sustainable development, Reflecting Realities: Participants' Perspectives on Integrated Communities is also available.
This short case study on local governance in Zambia highlights the deficit of the Zambian system in terms of service-delivery, participation and accountability. The state system has left decentralised government under-funded, insufficiently accountable and in conflict with line ministries. Development agencies have met these inadequacies by creating parallel structures for service-delivery that enhance participation. However, these parallel structures undermine the state system, are not sustainable, and have proliferated without coordination at district level and without inter-institutional learning. However, people's willingness to participate is clear, and the problems of this case point to how an enhanced model of democratic decentralisation would expand opportunities for participation, and provide a framework for coordination and improved accountability. The EU is a major funder of development programmes in Zambia, and may therefore exert influence over the Zambian government to move towards greater and coordinated democratic decentralisation.
Local governments: potentially the most important day to day real-world users of innovative participatory approaches
It is only over the 1990s that local government bodies have started to apply participatory methodologies with any consistency. This is surprising given their mandate to meet the needs and interests of local people. This overview discusses the many issues surrounding participation and local government. These include: the reasons why local government has failed until recently to employ participatory methodologies; how local government officials in both the North and South can learn from each other and how participation can be used to influence new styles of leadership that are more democratic, transparent and accountable.
This review brings together the lessons learnt from ActionAidÆs Accountability, Learning and Planning System (ALPS) over the year 2001. It is found that within the organisationÆs procedures the process has led to greater honesty and self-criticism, more reporting on impact, increased accountability and transparency, and reflections that are influencing practice. Some of the areas identified which require greater attention are gender, programme effectiveness, costs compared to achievements, feedback mechanisms, use if reviews and other learning, and relationships with partners. A series of case studies are presented which demonstrate ALPS in practice from Nigeria, Bangladesh, Kenya, India, Haiti, Burundi and Ethiopia.
This paper argues that transnational corporation ventures ought to factor in and mainstream accountability at the early stages of a project, implying that corporate accountability is a process to be nurtured over time. It also outlines a role for civil society actors as being instrumental in creating spaces for engagement with diverse stakeholders. It also draws emphasis to the role of advocacy in combating exploitation and human rights violations. The paper is based on a case study from the Titanium Mining Campaign in Kwale, Kenya. Some of the key lessons learnt from this paper include: ways in which the campaign brought together diverse players working against major obstacles in a bid to counter Tiomin and its allies; effective poverty eradication strategies will warrant a review and harmonisation of government policies to facilitate equitable access and control of productive resource by the immediate owners; the newly enacted Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act of 1999 needs to review observed inconsistencies and loopholes, particularly those requiring Environmental Impact Assessments be undertaken by project proponents to undertake EIAs for proposed developments; advocacy is most effective when backed up by a solid information base; as International NGOs continue to demand for accountability, they ought to focus on developing local capacities for engagement. This paper can be found at http://www.eldis.org/
Malnutrition remains a serious problem in most developing countries today. Experience has shown that when a community is fully involved in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nutrition and other development projects, these are likely to be more effective and sustainable. These guidelines for participatory approaches to nutrition projects are designed for use by professional staff from different institutional and technical backgrounds, working with development at a community level. They describe different aspects of participatory nutrition projects through four parts: The preparatory phase where existing information is reviewed, links are established to other development organisations and institutions, community relationships and dialogue are initiated and strengthened; The rationale and implementation of participatory appraisal of community food and nutrition presenting different visualisation and analysis techniques; Design and implementation of participatory projects an activities and how to find funding for micro-project proposals; The rationale and implementation of monitoring and evaluation. All the parts include boxes with case-studies from different parts of the world (e.g. Kenya, Tanzania, Guinea, Mexico, Philippines) and are concluded with an analysis of potential constraints and the role of the developmental worker described in steps.
Understanding the allocation of public resources through national and local budgets has become an increasing focus of development. This has been driven by two principal trends. Donor agencies, on the one hand, are seeking to deliver growing proportions of their financial assistance to partner countries through mainstream government systems - while, at a different level, a vibrant civil society movement has developed which seeks to promote goals of citizen empowerment, gender equity and poverty reduction through the potentials offered by the budget process. Norton and Elson aim to contribute to the evolving understanding of public expenditure management as a political, rather than a purely technical, process. In particular, they explore the ways in which a rights approach can contribute to strengthening voice and pro-poor outcomes in budget processes, and include examples of pro-poor and gender-sensitive budget initiatives from countries such as Brazil and South Africa. The work was commissioned by DFID as part of the programme of work to take forward it's human rights strategy, and identifies issues, partners, tools and methods that may help development actors to support citizen accountability and a pro-poor, gender-equitable, focus in public expenditure management.
This research examines the conduct and consequences of the use of participatory rural appraisal techniques in four rural development projects in The Gambia. It includes a review of literature on PRA and the identification of a series of themes that allow for an assessment of PRAÆs usefulness. The fieldwork in The Gambia included reviews of project documentation, key informant interviews, and periods of village-based research using PRA methods. The main research findings were that PRA has had some positive effects, particularly in motivating rural development workers, and generating a spirit of enquiry. There are a number of concerns, however: whether these can be maintained over the longer term; data quality, cost-effectiveness and high transaction costs of PRA use; the idealisation of the nature of æcommunityÆ and a bias towards the literate; little evidence that PRA is effective in empowering the poor or challenging long-term power relations. The main policy implications that arise from this are, firstly, although methodological instruments like PRA have some potential for capacity building in development organisations and communities, institutional structures and relationships are likely to be more important. Secondly, practitioners need to acknowledge the limitations of PRA as an analytical tool as its capacity to relate norms and values to other variables in the social system appears very limited. Thirdly, PRA can help engender greater community participation in development, but it is necessary to guard against the substitution of tools and methods for more concerted efforts at changing social relationships.
Measuring the magic? Evaluating and researching young people's participation in public decision making
This report examines what works, the issues that need to be examined, and future challenges concerning young people making public decisions. Young people are increasingly being involved in participatory projects, yet little attention in evaluations is given to how adults benefit from their involvement in participatory projects. There is, however, substantial evidence that good participatory work benefits the participating young people, including confidence, self-belief, knowledge, understanding and changed attitudes. The main finding is that more evaluation is needed to ensure young people are meaningfully involved in public decision making. To do this programmes need to develop clear aims and objectives for their work, they should include young peopleÆs views, redress power imbalances and use appropriate methods.
The Source from which rivers flow: organising for local governance, poverty reduction and development
This book is about how to strengthen communitiesÆ organising skills, confidence, creativity and relationships. It is designed for citizens and local leaders who are active in local development, but could also be useful to urban residents, councillors and agencies working with communities. It was produced through the community publishing process in Zimbabwe, and was enriched with ideas and examples from citizens and local leaders involved in a pilot programme in Gokwe North, Umzingwane and Maboto called Strengthening Citizen Participation in Local Governance. The book is based on participatory methods and provides question for the reader to reflect on. Although it can be read individually the bok is designed to be read by small groups in study circles, using methods described in the guide. The authors recommend it be used with two other books by ACPD (Africa Community Publishing and Development Trust) called Local Governance and Participation and Peace-building which have important chapters on communication and conflict resolution. The book is divided into ten sections focusing on teamwork; shared leadership; meeting for a purpose; research and writing; choosing priorities and analysing problems; decision making; planning; community participation in financial management; supervising, monitoring and evaluation; and co-ordination, negotiation and advocacy. The book also has a guide for facilitators giving tips on how to involve all participants in the group discussions. A very brief bibliography of associated literature is also included.
This guide is about using monitoring and evaluation (M&E) to improve the impact of IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development)-supported projects working with rural poverty alleviation and rural development. The focus is on a learning approach to M&E that uses achievements and problems for better decision-making and accountability. It requires creating an M&E system that helps primary stakeholders, implementing partners and project staff learn together in order to improve their development interventions on a continual basis. Because the ultimate objective is to ensure the maximum possible benefit for the rural poor, they are the ones best placed to assess project impact. The Guide suggests ideas for implementing this and other forms of participatory M&E. It includes the following set of booklets with sections going through the steps of M&E: introducing the M&E guide; using M&E to manage for impact; linking project design, annual planning and M&E; setting up the M&E system; deciding what to monitor and evaluate; gathering, managing and communicating information; putting in place the necessary capacities and conditions; and reflecting critically to improve action. The guide kit also includes five annexes with a glossary of M&E concepts and terms; an annotated example of a project logframe matrix and logframe explanation; an annotated example of an M&E matrix; methods for monitoring and evaluation; and sample job descriptions and terms of reference for key M&E tasks.