Non-Governmental Institutions and the State in Latin America: Rethinking Roles in Sustainable Agricultural Development
Non-Governmental Organizations and the State in Asia: Rethinking Roles in Sustainable Agricultural Development
Non-Governmental Organizations and the State in Africa: Rethinking Roles in Sustainable Agricultural Development
The Critical Villager: Beyond Community Participation
This book considers how community-based technical aid can be made more effective and sustainable. Calling for development workers, policy makers and researchers to put themselves in the place of the intended beneficiaries of aid, it suggests concrete principles for action and research. It argues that community-based participatory research and 'transfer of technology' are not rival models of development but complementary components in a sigle process of effective aid.
Community Participation in Rural Water Supply Projects in Northern Punjab and AJK: an exploratory study (Volumes I and II)
The report aims to evaluate the structures and organisational systems associated with effective water user groups, analysing the factors that hinder or support their role in the management of water supply schemes. Although the study is termed participatory, no direct mention of the methodology used is made. However, the study provides some very structured and detailed information on different aspects of water management collected in a survey of 69 villages. Volume I provides information on organisational issues in water management. Volume II instead illustrates five case studies covering a range of issues including social impact of technological choice and community level subsidisation.
Old Wine in New Bottles?
Much PRA has been through NGO, although government organizations are increasingly recognizing the need for participatory approaches. This is a greater challenge, as these organizations have a greater institutional inertia, requiring more time for real change to occur. This is illustrated by a programme in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Several problems commonon to government organizations are discussed. Pressure to acheive unrealistic targets leads to critisism over the slow process of participation which may result in a desire to revert to faster top down approaches. Funding agencies are geared to blueprint planning, not a process approach. Pre-defined packages and resources do not sit easily with participatory management plans - the type of support offered does not co-incide with that demanded. Government staff are less flexible for specific project requirements, may be more entrenched in their ways and have fewer incentives to change the pattern of their behaviour and attitudes. Training is required which is different from standard training, focusing on reversals and facilitation, and which is time consuming. Reorienting staff in a compartmentalised structure is difficult, as is maintaining their interest over time. Despite this, the benefits of PRA are seen to be many, although there is a long way to go before their widespread and wholehearted adoption.
Some reflections of a new PRA participant: the development manager
This provocative article reflects on the experience of conducting PRA exercises in Madhya Pradesh, India. The issues relate to Kulkarni's role as "development manager" in the context of villagers working directly with government officials. The ethical, political and methodological dimensions of PRA (specifically wealth ranking and social mapping) are all brought out in the discussion.