This paper documents the proceedings of a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on the theme of PRA and participatory planning techniques. The workshop was designed to give an introduction to the theory and practice of these themes which would enable trainees to then practice the methods in the field. The introduction to the workshop raised some important issues for discussion on the questions of what participatory development actually entails in practice. It also introduced the concept of a '' ladder of participation'' that discusses the potential for different degrees of participation to exist. The trainees were then divided into four sets of teams and introduced to a wide range of PRA tools that they were expected to try out in the field before initiating a process of participatory analysis among community members. The workshop provided a brief guide as to how to utilise the different PRA tools, with a prescriptive list of do's and dont's and an example of each was given. The concept of community action plans were then introduced in the workshop as a means of continuing the process of PRA. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and the implications it had for the participants and the communities. In the adjoining annexes ( A-E) among other issues there is a short discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and some comments that were made by participants during an evaluation that followed.
''NKASIRI'': Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning Techniques: Workshop proceedings, Maralal, Kenya, 1996
This paper documents a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on PRA and participatory planning. The introduction to the workshop raised issues like what participatory development actually entails in practice, and introduced the '' ladder of participation'' i.e. different degrees of participation. The trainees were divided into four teams and introduced to a range of PRA tools, with a list of do's and dontÆs. Community action plans were introduced. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and their implications for workshop participants and communities. The annexes include a discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and workshop participantsÆ evaluation comments.
This paper discusses activities of Mobilisation Against Desertification (MAD), an NGO in Kenya. MAD began their activities with one farmer who introduced two others, and gradually interest spread through the village. A PRA was conducted to find ways MAD could reach the whole village and to help villagers develop their own resource management plan. This paper outlines the PRA activities and environmental problems identified, and the role of a committee in following up with soil and water conservation activities.
This paper presents an approach to addressing the problem of rural housing shortage in India. Three contexts require external intervention: low housing quality of the poor and landless; rehousing of displaced people due to development projects; rehabilitation of victims of natural disasters. Interventions are often unsuccessful because of erroneous needs assessment. This study presents a participatory method to enable architects and planners to gather and analyse information to assist decision-making. The method is based on participatory information collection games, user-documentation of baseline data, participatory group analysis and evaluation of issues, and a tool for rapid information retrieval to prepare a 'user needs statement'.
This handbook is based on the experiences of the CUSO-CCPD Training Programme for NGOs in Northern Ghana. However, examples are used to bring out the underlying principles which shaped the training process and generated participants' experiences. The emphasis of the book is strongly towards participatory approaches to development and training. Chapters 1 and 2 present the theoretical framework of the handbook - participatory training and the designing process of a participatory training programme. Subsequent chapters cover the basic concepts on gender in development, how gender analysis may be done, and the preparation of gender-oriented extensions programmes. The handbook is very clearly written and organised, making the concepts extremely accessible.
This edition of 'Dialogue', the magazine of Homeless International, focuses on community exchanges as a learning process. These have been transformed into practices that have begun to change the way that development in informal settlements takes place. South-South exchanges have been important in this respect, and knowledge is now being shared in the UK through North-South exchange. The magazine looks at some of the exchanges that have taken place in more depth, as well giving some govenments perspectives on working in partnership.
A Manual on the Estate/Barangay-level Productivity Systems Assessment and Planning (PSAP) Methodology
This clear manual covers a large number of research techniques and methods commonly used in PRA. They are grouped under three categories of information gathered: spatial, temporal and social/institutional information. For each tool/technique, the following steps are explained in detail: what information can be gathered with the technique, steps in carrying out the technique and the importance of the technique. Illustrations are given of examples for each tool and an analysis is made of the sample. Once the data are gathered, the manual covers aspects of verifying them, identifying problems and opportunities and using the data for planning. The examples given come from the application of the tools in the village of Igdagmay on Antique. While the manual does not focus on soil and water conservation, it is written for rural development work in general. This is a good reference book for those wishing to use any of the techniques covered.
A participatory methodology for community-based land and resource use planning: a case study from Tanzania
This paper provides a brief account of a participatory methodology used in the development of land and resource use plans in Tanzania's rift valley. In recent years population pressure has led to increasing land and resource use conflict between the three groups - agriculturalists, pastoralists and hunter-gatherers - who inhabit the area. A participatory approach was used to provide an understanding of the complex issues involved and to build trust and cooperation between the different groups. Mapping, transects, seasonal diagramming, semi-structured and open interviewing were used in the process of involving stakeholder groups in developing land and resource use plans for their village territory.
A Rapid-Assessment Survey of the Irrigation Component of the Anuradhapura Dry-Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP)
A rapid assessment survey of a representative sample of tanks was conducted to provide an overview of the irrigation component of the Anuradhapura Dry Zone Agriculture Project (ADZAP). The study traced the development of each sample tank from the pre-project situation to head works construction and later downstream development and work. The questionnaire used was based on rapid assessment questionnaires and covered four general topics : i) Tank construction, ii) The settlement process, iii) The agricultural economy, iv) Irrigation operation and management The questionnaire was compiled through field observations and group interviews normally comprising 5-10 farmers. Farmer input was considerable and the tank selection was in the majority of cases (74%) came from rural development societies. A key policy implication arising from the study was the need for greater farmer participation at the implementation stage i.e settlement and involvement of farmers prior to or while investments are made in the system. A participatory approach to such system development may outpace and outproduce a construction-oriented approach.
The paper describes the experiences of incorporating participatory methods into strategic development planning in a rural community in Belize, Central America. The SWOT (= Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) technique was used to provide a framework for villagers to identify and assess their community's internal strengths and weaknesses and the external political and economic opportunities and threats facing them. It enabled the villagers to assess their preferred option, citrus expansion, in the light of government policy towards citrus production and trends in world prices for citrus. The paper concludes by discussing some of the limitations of the approach and how it might be improved.